Youth Strength Training 2nd edition

By Avery Faigenbaum and Wayne Westcott

  • Genre : Fitness
  • Publisher :
  • ISBN : 978 0736067928
  • Year : 2009
  • Language: English

Description

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Faigenbaum Avery D 1961 Youth strength training programs for health fitness and sport Avery D Faigenbaum Wayne L Westcott -- 2nd ed p cm -- Strength power for young athletes Rev ed of Strength power for young athletes c2000 Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN-13 978-0-7360-6792-8 soft cover ISBN-10 0-7360-6792-2 soft cover 1 Exercise for children 2 Physical fitness for children I Westcott Wayne L 1949- II Faigenbaum Avery D 1961- Strength power for young athletes III Title RJ133 F35 2009 613 7 042--dc22 2008049096 ISBN-10 0-7360-6792-2 print ISBN-13 978-0-7360-6792-8 print ISBN-10 0-7360-8761-3 Adobe PDF ISBN-13 978-0-7360-8761-2 Adobe PDF Copyright 2009 2000 by Avery D Faigenbaum and Wayne L Westcott All rights reserved Except for use in a review the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any electronic mechanical or other means now known or hereafter invented including xerography photocopying and recording and in any information storage and retrieval system is forbidden without the written permission of the publisher Notice Permission to reproduce the following material is granted to instructors and agencies who have purchased Youth Strength Training Programs for Health Fitness and Sport p 30 The reproduction of other parts of this book is expressly forbidden by the above copyright notice Persons or agencies who have not purchased Youth Strength Training Programs for Health Fitness and Sport may not reproduce any material This book is a revised edition of Strength Power for Young Athletes published in 2000 by Human Kinetics Acquisitions Editor Scott Wikgren Developmental Editor Melissa Feld Assistant Editor Rachel Brito Copyeditor Jan Feeney Indexer Craig Brown Permission Manager Dalene Reeder Graphic Designer Nancy Rasmus Graphic Artist Denise Lowry Cover Designer Keith Blomberg Photographer cover Neil Bernstein Photographer interior Neil Bernstein except where otherwise noted Photos on pages 1 16 170 183 and 209 Human Kinetics Photo on page 167 MM Productions Corbis Visual Production Assistant Joyce Brumfield Photo Production Manager Jason Allen Art Manager Kelly Hendren Associate Art Manager Alan L Wilborn Illustrators Andrew Recher page 18 and Alan L Wilborn Printer Versa Press We thank the South Shore YMCA in Quincy Massachusetts for assistance in providing the location for the photo shoot for this book Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The paper in this book is certified under a sustainable forestry program Human Kinetics Web site www HumanKinetics com United States Human Kinetics P O Box 5076 Champaign IL 61825-5076 800-747-4457 e-mail humank hkusa com Canada Human Kinetics 475 Devonshire Road Unit 100 Windsor ON N8Y 2L5 800-465-7301 in Canada only e-mail info hkcanada com Europe Human Kinetics 107 Bradford Road Stanningley Leeds LS28 6AT United Kingdom 44 0 113 255 5665 e-mail hk hkeurope com Australia Human Kinetics 57A Price Avenue Lower Mitcham South Australia 5062 08 8372 0999 e-mail info hkaustralia com New Zealand Human Kinetics Division of Sports Distributors NZ Ltd P O Box 300 226 Albany North Shore City Auckland 0064 9 448 1207 e-mail info humankinetics co nz It is with great appreciation that we dedicate this book to the hundreds of boys and girls who have participated so enthusiastically in our strength training programs to their most accommodating parents who genuinely appreciated the importance of developing a strong musculoskeletal system at a young age and to all the fitness professionals and physical education teachers with whom we have worked to help youth understand the value of regular strength training as a lifestyle choice s t n e t Con FPO Foreword vii Acknowledgments ix Introduction xi Part I Fitness Fundamentals 1 Ready to Train 3 Strength Training Versus Weightlifting Powerlifting and Bodybuilding 5 FUNdamental Fitness 6 Muscles Bones and Connective Tissue 7 Program Assessment 8 Getting Ready 12 Summary 16 2 Program Prescriptions 17 Training Guidelines 18 Program Considerations 22 Play Education 23 Summary 24 3 Exercise Technique and Training Procedures 25 Understanding Children 26 Being a Teacher 28 Developing the Fitness Workout 29 Using Equipment Safely 29 Keeping It Progressive 32 Summary 32 Part II Exercises 4 Free Weights 35 Training With Free Weights 36 Free-Weight Exercises 38 Summary 72 5 Weight Machines 73 Training on Weight Machines 74 Weight Machine Exercises 74 Summary 97 6 Elastic Bands and Medicine Balls 99 Training With Elastic Bands and Medicine Balls 101 Elastic Band Exercises 101 Medicine Ball Exercises 112 Summary 137 7 Body-Weight Training Using Body Weight as Resistance 140 Body-Weight Exercises 141 Summary 165 iv 139 Part III Program Design 8 General Preparation 169 Preparatory Conditioning 169 Training Youth 170 Dynamic Motivation 172 Summary 173 9 Basic Strength and Power for Ages 7 to 10 177 Components of the Warm-Up and Cool-Down 178 Strength-Training Program 179 Strength-Training Exercises 179 Training Considerations 183 Summary 184 10 Intermediate Strength and Power for Ages 11 to 14 185 Components of the Warm-Up and Cool-Down 185 Strength-Training Program 185 Machine Strength-Training Exercises 186 Free-Weight StrengthTraining Exercises 188 Medicine Ball Strength-Training Exercises 188 Training Considerations 189 Summary 192 11 Advanced Strength and Power for Ages 15 to 18 193 Components of the Warm-Up and Cool-Down 194 Strength-Training Program 194 Machine and Free-Weight Strength-Training Exercises 195 Medicine Ball and Elastic Band Strength-Training Exercises 195 Training Considerations 197 Summary 200 12 Sport-Specific Strength and Power for Young Athletes 201 Training for Sport Conditioning 202 Baseball and Softball 203 Basketball and Volleyball 203 Dancing and Figure Skating 204 Football and Rugby 204 Ice Hockey and Field Hockey 205 Soccer 205 Swimming 206 Tennis 206 Track Sprints and Jumps 206 Track Distance Running 207 Summary 207 Part IV Long-Term Planning and Nutritional Support 13 Periodization and Recovery 211 Overreaching and Overtraining 212 Models of Periodization 213 Rest and Recovery 214 Long-Term Development 216 Summary 216 14 Eating for Strength and Performance 217 Basics of Healthy Eating 218 Children s Nutritional Needs 222 Hydration 224 Snack Foods 224 Summary 225 Appendix Sample Workout Log 226 Suggested Readings 227 Index 229 About the Authors 235 v d r o w Fore I am pleased to introduce Avery Faigenbaum and Wayne Westcott s book Youth Strength Training Programs for Health Fitness and Sport Their first book on this topic Strength Power for Young Athletes published in 2000 was groundbreaking because it introduced the principles as well as the practical aspects of developing safe and effective strength-training programs for children and adolescents Using the 2000 book as its foundation this new edition presents a large scope of new information on youth strength-training programs This reflects the growing interest and research in this area as well as the experience of strength and fitness professionals in the training of young athletes Although much has been learned in the intervening years it is still apparent that teachers and coaches need to follow the ageappropriate strength-training guidelines that Drs Faigenbaum and Westcott present in this well-researched text The International Olympic Committee s Consensus Statement on Training the Elite Child Athlete which was published in March of 2008 in the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine is a summary of the available scientific information regarding training elite child athletes This consensus statement notes the need for further research in this area because there is increased emphasis on systematic training and participation in organized sports by children and adolescents Despite this worldwide trend and concerns about the safety and efficacy of sport conditioning for this age group the authors have provided sensible and specific exercise guidelines for youth strength training based on their two decades of research on this topic Youth Strength Training Programs for Health Fitness and Sport contains the most current scientifically based information on strength and power training for young athletes This new edition is even more detailed and specific in its recommendations for developing enjoyable and effective strength-training programs for youth of all abilities Although the focus of this book is on the training of young athletes the principles embodied here can be used for any child or adolescent as part of a general conditioning and fitness program I highly recommend this book for anyone involved in the training of children and adolescents It is a valuable resource that you will turn to frequently for assistance in designing youth strength-training programs Lyle J Micheli MD O Donnell family professor of orthopaedic sports medicine Children s Hospital Boston Harvard Medical School Director of Division of Sports Medicine Children s Hospital Boston Past president of American College of Sports Medicine vii s t n e edgm l w o n Ack It is a great privilege to acknowledge the many gifted individuals who so generously gave their time and talents in helping us write this book We are most grateful for the professional leadership at Human Kinetics We especially appreciate the editorial expertise of Melissa Feld and the superb photography skills of Neil Bernstein We thank Gabrielle Burgess Gary Burgess Andrew DeLacey Lisa DeLacey and Jennifer DeLacey for demonstrating correct exercise technique for the photos We are also indebted to the parents of the models Gary and Diane Burgess and Brian and Lynn DeLacey for their unwavering support of our youth strength-training programs and extraordinary assistance during the photo sessions We are particularly grateful to registered dietitian Debra Wein for her nutrition advice and Rita LaRosa-Loud for her innovative leadership in our youth strength-training classes We appreciate the support from Patrick Mediate Jim McFarland and Tracy Radler who allowed us to use their weight rooms and gymnasiums as our research labs We especially thank Ralph Yohe and the directors of the South Shore YMCA for our state-of-the-art youth strength-training facility We thank the many student interns who have provided outstanding exercise instruction and research assistance in our youth strength-training programs Finally we sincerely appreciate the support of Dr Lyle Micheli and his sports medicine staff at Boston Children s Hospital for our youth strength-training programs over the past 20 years ix n o i t c u d o r t In Our first edition of Youth Strength Training Programs for Health Fitness and Sport presented the physiological and psychological benefits associated with regular resistance exercise in boys and girls 7 to 15 years of age In the nine years since the publication of the first edition we have completed more research studies compiled more data taught more unfit children worked with more youth athletes and presented more pertinent information in the area of muscular conditioning programs for young people One of the most compelling reasons for youth strength training is the development of a strong musculoskeletal system that can withstand the rigors of sport participation as well as ward off the degenerative effects of the aging process We now know that the time to build bone is during the preteen through teenage years and that children who regularly perform resistance exercise increase bone mineral density several times as fast as those who do not strength train Another health benefit of youth strength training is improved body composition which is particularly important in light of the present epidemic of childhood obesity One out of three children is challenged by excessive body fat and these boys and girls are poorly suited for both endurance-type exercise and fast-paced athletic activities which they typically avoid at all costs Fortunately they generally enjoy performing resistance exercise most likely because they compare more favorably with their lighter peers and they find the training effects highly reinforcing that is they look better feel better and function better When it comes to sport participation few things rival resistance exercise for reducing risk of injury and enhancing athletic performance Tiger Woods is a perfect example of this as are the members of the women s cross-country team at Notre Dame High School in Hingham Massachusetts Over a four-year period these female athletes combined their running workouts with sensible strength training under our supervision The results were remarkable The superbly conditioned Notre Dame teams 15 varsity runners and 15 junior varsity runners won four consecutive New England cross-country championships and had only one injury during the entire four years of competition Contrary to the misconceptions that strength training increases the potential for injury and decreases endurance performance the facts are that properly executed strength exercise enhances running economy and reduces the risk of muscle overuse and imbalance problems Although our first book focused on the safety and effectiveness of youth strength training we now have new research for designing more efficient enjoyable productive and practical programs of strength exercise for young people of various ages and abilities In addition to our studies on workout frequency exercise sets and repetitions and related training components we have examined other factors that affect program design for both sport conditioning and general fitness for essentially all boys and girls In fact the primary focus of this book is to help physical education teachers coaches and parents provide the best program of resistance exercise for youth to develop a functional level of strength fitness and a desirable body composition Our research indicates that improving these physical characteristics is reinforcing to all young people regardless of size shape or athletic abilities In addition to producing more effective and efficient strength-training programs our new research has led to the development of more productive protocols for warming up and cooling down more acceptable procedures for enhancing joint flexibility and more innovative means of incorporating resistance exercises into physical education classes sport practice sessions and exercise facilities at YMCAs fitness centers and home settings Recently we implemented a strength-training program with medicine balls at a local high school The results were so xi Introduction xii impressive and the students enjoyed the program so much that this program is now part of a statewide physical education curriculum in 1st through 12th grade This school is now ranked as one of the top schools in the state for physical fitness assessment scores We have also expanded our information in the areas of nutrition and recovery to maximize the beneficial effects of strength exercise for all children as well as to minimize the risks of overtraining in young athletes Emphasis is placed on a broad base of balanced muscle development for every boy and girl and the secondary objective is performing more specific strength-training protocols for youth who participate in various sports and recreational activities Once they achieve an acceptable level of overall muscle conditioning youth sport participants will find more comprehensive strength-training programs for numerous athletic activities within the general categories of power sports jumping sports striking sports and endurance sports Teachers coaches and parents who incorporate our latest muscular conditioning programs should see high rates of strength development and few overuse injuries among their young trainees Because children are not miniature adults we do not simply offer a watered-down version of adult strength-training programs In fact children of various ages and developmental levels respond best to specifically designed protocols of resistance exercise We therefore present age-specific strength-training programs for students in elementary school 7 to 10 years middle school 11 to 14 years and high school 15 to 18 years Because children experience varying rates of physiological development we provide guidelines for individualizing the general exercise protocols within each age group We also present a specially designed section on athletic conditioning for a variety of sports The information is comprehensive and the organization is easy to understand and apply Based on our combined 50 years of experience in teaching youth strength-training classes and coaching all kinds of athletes as well as our research on instructional techniques we devote an entire chapter to the art and science of educating and motivating young people to properly perform resistance exercise Toward this end we place a strong emphasis on exercise selection and performance as evidenced by the clear illustrations and precise descriptions of more than 100 resistance exercises using weight stack machines free weights medicine balls elastic bands and body-weight resistance We believe that proper exercise technique is the most critical concern in presenting and instructing youth strength-training programs Although the number of exercises sets and repetitions youth perform are important aspects of workout design how they perform each exercise set and repetition has even more impact on the safety and success of their training sessions And that is the underlying theme throughout this book training for the right purpose and purposely training in the right manner to maximize musculoskeletal development and minimize risk of injury in children and young athletes If you are interested in childhood obesity youth fitness or sport conditioning then Youth Strength Training Programs for Health Fitness and Sport is the definitive text for implementing efficient and research-based exercise programs for your children physical education classes and sport teams Part I pt s s e n t Fi s l a t n e m a d n Fu 1 y d a e R cn n i a r to T Children and adolescents need to participate regularly i e most days of the week in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate enjoyable and varied While aerobic activities such as swimming and bicycling are generally recommended for youth scientific evidence and clinical impressions indicate that strength training can offer unique benefits for boys and girls provided that ageappropriate training guidelines are followed With proper guidance and instruction regular participation in a youth strength-training program can have favorable effects on musculoskeletal health body composition cardiovascular risk factors fitness performance and psychological well-being Furthermore a stronger musculoskeletal system will enable youth to perform life s daily activities with more energy and vigor and may increase young athletes resistance to sport-related injuries During our youth physical activity did not involve a conscious decision to engage in planned exercise rather it was what we did on a regular basis before during and after school Regular physical activities that involved running jumping lifting balancing throwing and kicking not only kept our bodies healthy fit and strong but were important for our cognitive motor skill and social development But today youth seem to spend more time in front of televisions and computer screens than at the playground The bottom line is that a sedentary lifestyle during childhood and adolescence may increase the risk of developing some chronic diseases such as heart disease diabetes and osteoporosis later in life Thus it is even more important to encourage youth to be physically active on most days of the week as part of play recreation physical education sports and transportation Physical education teachers youth coaches and fitness instructors need to create opportunities for boys and girls of all abilities to be physically active While organized sport programs certainly have their place participation in physical activity should not begin with competitive sport it should evolve out of preparatory conditioning that includes strength training That is children should participate in a variety of physical activities that enhance their motor performance skills and improve their musculoskeletal strength in order to better prepare them for the demands of daily sport practice and competition Focusing entirely on specific sport skills at an early age not only limits the ability of children to succeed at tasks outside a narrow physical spectrum but also discriminates against children whose motor skills develop at a slower pace Our youth fitness pyramid figure 1 1 illustrates the importance of first preparing the musculoskeletal systems of youth for the demands of more vigorous physical activity and sport competition through regular participation in general exercise and what we call FUNdamental fitness conditioning Unlike other physical activity pyramids that focus on early sport participation the youth fitness pyramid highlights the importance of FUNdamental fitness conditioning which includes strength power aerobic flexibility and agility exercises before sport-specific training and competition Enjoyable youth programs that develop both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness will be more likely to spark a lifelong interest in physical activity and sport 3 Fitness Fundamentals 4 Figure 1 1 Youth fitness pyramid E4017 Faigenbaum fig 1 11 333198 alw r1 of Pediatrics the American College of Sports You ve probably heard that children should Medicine the American Council on Exercise not train with weights because it doesn t work the British Association for Sport and Exercise places too much stress on growing muscles or is Science the Canadian Society for Exercise Physidangerous Categorically all of these reasons are ology the National Association for Sport and misconceptions As you are undoubtedly aware Physical Education and the National Strength strength-building exercise can be beneficial to and Conditioning Association have published growing boys and girls However because children guidelines for youth strength training That s are not miniature adults you must progress caua pretty impressive list of supporters for youth tiously when training young people Over the past strength training several years research has clearly demonstrated that strength exercise is a safe effective and Furthermore the American Alliance for efficient means for conditioning young muscles Health Physical Education Recreation and Dance as long as certain safety precautions are in place developed a comprehensive school-based proFortunately all the boys and girls in our program gram called Physical Best which enhances young have increased their muscular strength and not people s ability to perform physical activities that one has had an exercise-related injury This is require aerobic fitness joint flexibility and musmost likely due to the careful supervision that we cular strength By incorporating components of provide to all our strength-training participants health-related physical fitness into the elementary and secondary school curricula school-age Others also recommend strength training youth will gain the knowledge and confidence for young people Several medical and fitness they need in order to be physically active adults organizations including the American Academy Ready to Train 5 In addition strength training during childhood and adolescence may provide the foundation for dramatic gains in muscle strength during adulthood Thus the key issue is not only appreciating the potential health-related benefits of strength training for youth but understanding how to provide children and adolescents with the skills knowledge attitudes and behaviors that lead to a lifetime of muscle-enhancing physical activity What s more regular participation in a youth strength-training program can have a favorable impact on skill-related fitness components including power speed balance coordination agility and reaction time Although a high degree of skill-related fitness is not a prerequisite for a lifetime of physical activity confidence and competence in the ability to perform skills that require balance coordination and power can indeed contribute to a person s health and fitness throughout both youth and adult years For example since strength training can enhance muscular strength and muscular power which are required for success in all sports including tennis basketball and track it is likely that youth who strength train will perform better than those who do not strength train Moreover as sport performance improves the activity will become more enjoyable and therefore participants will be more likely to stick with it Thus unlike other modes of exercise training that typically isolate fitness components strength training provides physical education teachers with an opportunity to integrate health- and skillrelated fitness components into a comprehensive physical education program in which all children can feel challenged while they enhance both health- and skill-related fitness abilities see table 1 1 While it is important not to overemphasize skill development we believe the best approach is to teach all students to recognize the value of both health- and skill-related fitness components Strength training provides physical education teachers with an opportunity to integrate health- and skill-related fitness components into a comprehensive physical education program in which all children can feel challenged while they enhance both health- and skill-related fitness abilities Table 1 1 Components of Fitness Health-related fitness Skill-related fitness Aerobic fitness Agility Muscular strength and endurance Coordination Flexibility Reaction time Body composition Balance Speed Power Strength Training Versus Weightlifting Powerlifting and Bodybuilding Strength training is different from weightlifting powerlifting and bodybuilding By definition strength training is a planned and structured means of exercising with appropriate resistance that a participant gradually progresses as the musculoskeletal system becomes stronger Children and adolescents can perform strength training with a variety of equipment such as weight machines free weights barbells and dumbbells elastic bands medicine balls or body weight alone Properly designed and supervised youth strength-training programs should involve enjoyable activities in which every participant gains strength and experiences success in a safe and supportive exercise environment Weightlifting and powerlifting are competitive sports in which participants typically train with moderate and heavy weights in order to maximize gains in muscle strength and muscle power In the sport of weightlifting athletes perform the clean and jerk and snatch exercises in the sport of powerlifting athletes perform the squat bench press and deadlift exercises Bodybuilding is a competitive sport in which the goal is to maximize gains in muscle size symmetry and definition Although many of the exercises that weightlifters powerlifters and bodybuilders perform are described in this book we focus on the principles and programs Fitness Fundamentals 6 for designing progressive youth strength-training programs that are fundamental for all school-age youth Model programs for young competitive lifters are available through professional organizations such as USA Weightlifting Other terms commonly used in designing youth strength-training programs are defined in table 1 2 Properly designed and supervised youth strength-training programs should involve enjoyable activities in which every participant gains strength and experiences success in a safe and supportive exercise environment FUNdamental Fitness There are two broad categories of youth and both need strength training to develop and enhance fundamental locomotor e g running nonlocomotor e g lifting and manipulative i e throwing skills that are the components of most games and sports The larger category consists of those boys and girls who engage in little physical activity on a regular basis Unlike children in earlier generations they don t do many physical chores don t play backyard sports don t have many physical education classes and don t engage in much vigorous activity Sadly increasing urbanization has resulted in a lack of safe play areas and many boys and girls spend most of their free time in passive pursuits such Table 1 2 Definition of Common Terms Term Definition Agility The ability to quickly decelerate change direction and accelerate again Balance The maintenance or control of a body position Coordination The ability of various muscles to work together to produce a specific movement Local muscular endurance The ability to perform repeated repetitions with a submaximal or moderate load Muscular fitness The ability to perform physical activities that require muscular strength muscular power or local muscular endurance Plyometrics A type of power training that consists of jumping hopping and throwing activities Power The rate of performing work The product of force and velocity Reaction A response to a stimulus Repetition One complete movement of an exercise Repetition maximum The maximum number of repetitions that can be performed with a given resistance Set A group of repetitions performed continuously without resting Speed The ability to achieve high velocity Strength The maximal amount of force a muscle or muscle group can generate Strength training Also called resistance training A specialized method of conditioning that involves the progressive use of a wide variety of resistive loads and a variety of training modalities designed to enhance muscular fitness Ready to Train 7 as watching television playing video games or surfing the Internet This lack of regular physical activity has contributed to the unabated increase in the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents Over the past three decades the prevalence of childhood obesity has more than doubled for adolescents and has more than tripled for children And the likelihood that an obese child will become an obese adult is both real and alarming Since obese youth may lack the motor skills and confidence to be physically active they may actually perceive physical activity to be discomforting and embarrassing Thus these youth desperately need strength training to condition their muscles tendons ligaments and bones because a fundamental level of musculoskeletal fitness is essential for youth to experience and enjoy a physically active lifestyle Although strength training is not often associated with a high caloric expenditure obese youth are less willing and often unable to participate in prolonged periods of moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise Not only does excess body weight hinder the performance of weight-bearing physical activity such as jogging but the risk of musculoskeletal overuse injuries is also a concern Strength training provides obese youth with a positive activity that enables them to enjoy purposeful exercise experience personal improvement and train cooperatively with friends in a supportive setting and exciting atmosphere Observations from our youth strength-training centers suggest most obese children and adolescents find strength training activities enjoyable because this type of exercise is not aerobically taxing and provides an opportunity for all youth regardless of body size to experience success and feel good about their performance Furthermore since obese youth tend to use the heaviest weight loads they typically receive unsolicited feedback from their peers who are often impressed with the amount of weight they can lift The first step in encouraging obese children and adolescents to exercise may be to increase their confidence in their ability to be physically active which in turn may lead to an increase in regular physical activity a noticeable improvement in muscle strength and exposure to a form of exercise that can be carried into adulthood Our review of the literature which was published in the President s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest clearly indicates that participation in a supervised program of strength exercise can make a world of difference in a child s life The other category of young people consists of the sport participants These are the kids who play soccer do age-group swimming take dance gymnastics and skating lessons and participate in other organized sport activities Although they get plenty of physical exercise they also need a general program of strength training to ensure balanced muscle development and lower their risk for overuse injuries Basically children should have good overall strength before engaging in competitive sports that can place excessive stress on an unconditioned musculoskeletal system An overemphasis on sport-specific skills typically provides too little stimulus for some major muscles and too much stress on other major muscles therefore injury failure and frustration are the likely results Muscles Bones and Connective Tissue The concept of fundamental fitness revolves around developing a strong and fit musculoskeletal system The musculoskeletal system consists of the muscles tendons ligaments and bones that enable us to move and perform physical activities A strong musculoskeletal system prepares children for all types of physical activity and reduces the risk of sport-related injuries Few things have as much of a positive effect on a young person s life as a well-conditioned musculoskeletal system You might have heard that children do not have sufficient levels of the muscle-building hormone testosterone to gain strength apart from normal growth and maturation This is a false assumption Although preadolescents and females of all ages have too little natural testosterone to develop large muscles they can certainly increase their muscle strength Boys and girls in research studies typically improved their muscle strength by 30 to 50 percent in only two months of training This is possible because strength development is associated with a variety of neuromuscular factors and does not solely depend on hormone levels Fitness Fundamentals 8 A strong musculoskeletal system prepares children for all types of physical activity and reduces the risk of sportrelated injuries Few things have as much positive impact on a young person s life as a well-conditioned musculoskeletal system Another misconception concerns growth retardation in children who train with weights Nothing could be further from the truth There has never been a report of stunted growth or reduced bone formation related to strength training While bone mass is strongly influenced by genetics progressive strength exercise makes bones stronger and more resistant to injury Because most bone mass is accrued during childhood and adolescence this is the ideal time to enhance musculoskeletal strength and structure through properly designed resistance-training programs In addition to the direct effect of strength exercise on bone strength training can increase bone mass indirectly by increasing muscle strength which in turn can increase the stress placed on bone Hence training-induced gains in muscle strength allow for even greater forces to be placed on bone where the strengthened muscles attach This may be particularly beneficial for young girls in reducing their risk of osteoporosis later in life Program Assessment When properly administered fitness assessments can be used for evaluating specific strengths and weaknesses developing personalized programs tracking progress and motivating participants Standardized testing procedures for assessing physical fitness have been developed and normative data are available for most health-related assessments However when evaluating youth it is important to avoid the pass fail mentality because this approach may actually discourage unfit or overweight boys and girls from participating in physical education class or other physical activity programs In an attempt to create an environment in which students enjoy the fitness assessment and feel good about participating we refer to the assessment as a challenge rather than a test As such every student is rewarded for participating and youth who try their best but do not have the ability to perform a minimal number of repetitions receive a instead of a 0 In a clinical or research setting children typically perform a variety of physical tests that assess muscular fitness The most common strength tests determine the repetition maximum RM which is the maximum amount of weight that can be lifted for a specific number of repetitions For example a 1RM is the most weight that can be lifted once but not twice on an exercise and a 10RM is the most weight that can be lifted for 10 but not 11 repetitions Normally clinicians or researchers will determine the RM on two or three multijoint exercises With close supervision qualified instruction adequate warm-up and an appropriate progression of loads RM strength testing can be a safe and effective method for assessing muscular strength and evaluating training-induced gains in muscular fitness in youth However RM strength testing is labor intensive and requires a lot of time since several trials with adequate rest between trails are required to accurately determine the maximal weight that can be lifted for a predetermined number of repetitions An example of a testing protocol used for determining a 1RM is outlined in the sidebar When properly administered fitness assessments can be used for evaluating specific strengths and weaknesses developing personalized programs tracking progress and motivating participants Other types of fitness assessments are available for physical education teachers and youth coaches who work with large groups of children and adolescents These assessments are relatively easy to administer and provide valid and reliable information on selected measures of health and fitness Furthermore since the most worthwhile youth programs inspire children and teenagers to develop lifelong healthy habits these fitness assessments provide students with an opportunity to demonstrate what they can do now that they could not do before The Fitnessgram is

Author Avery Faigenbaum and Wayne Westcott Isbn 978 0736067928 File size 20 Mb Year 2009 Pages 248 Language English File format PDF Category Fitness The benefits of strength training for youth are clearly documented Yet teachers fitness instructors and youth coaches are often not sure how to proceed and they end up watering down adult versions of strength training programs That is definitely not the way to go But authors Avery Faigenbaum and Wayne Westcott with their 50 years of combin

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