Work Engagement A Handbook Of Essential Theory And Research

By Arnold B. Bakker and Michael P.

  • Genre : Psychology
  • Publisher :
  • ISBN : 1841697362
  • Year : 2010
  • Language: English

Description

WORK ENGAGEMENT This book provides the most thorough view available on this new and intriguing dimension of workplace psychology which is the basis of ful lling productive work The book begins by de ning work engagement which has been described as an opposite to burnout following its development into a more complex concept with far-reaching implications for work life The chapters discuss the sources of work engagement emphasizing the importance of leadership organizational structures and human resource management as factors that may operate to either enhance or inhibit employees experience of work The book considers the implications of work engagement for both the individual employee and the organization as a whole To address readers practical questions the book provides in-depth coverage of interventions that can enhance employees work engagement and improve management techniques Based upon the most up-to-date research by the foremost experts in the world this volume brings together the best knowledge available on work engagement and will be of great use to academic researchers upper level students of work and organizational psychology as well as management consultants Arnold B Bakker is Full Professor at the Department of Work and Organizational Psychology at Erasmus University Rotterdam The Netherlands His research interests include positive organizational behavior e g ow and engagement at work performance burnout crossover of work-related emotions and serious games on organizational phenomena Michael P Leiter is Canada Research Chair in Organizational Health and Professor of Psychology at Acadia University and Director of the Center for Organizational Research Development http cord acadiau ca that applies high-quality research methods to human resource issues He is actively involved as a consultant on occupational issues in Canada the USA and Europe Work Engagement A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research Edited by Arnold B Bakker and Michael P Leiter Published in 2010 by Psychology Press 27 Church Road Hove East Sussex BN3 2FA Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Psychology Press 270 Madison Avenue New York NY 10016 This edition published in the Taylor Francis e-Library 2010 To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor Francis or Routledge s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www eBookstore tandf co uk Psychology Press is an imprint of the Taylor Francis Group an informa business Copyright 2010 Psychology Press All rights reserved No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic mechanical or other means now known or hereafter invented including photocopying and recording or in any information storage or retrieval system without permission in writing from the publishers This publication has been produced with paper manufactured to strict environmental standards and with pulp derived from sustainable forests British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Work engagement a handbook of essential theory and research edited by Arnold B Bakker and Michael P Leiter p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-1-84169-736-9 hb 1 Employee motivation 2 Psychology Industrial 3 Work Psychological aspects 4 Employees Attitudes I Bakker Arnold B II Leiter Michael P HF5549 5 M63W667 2010 158 7 dc22 2009033356 ISBN 0-203-85304-0 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 978-1-84169-736-9 hbk Contents List of contributors 1 vii Work engagement Introduction 7 1 Michael P Leiter and Arnold B Bakker 2 Jari J Hakanen and Gert Roodt De ning and measuring work engagement Bringing clarity to the concept 10 8 Wilmar B Schaufeli and Arnold B Bakker 3 9 10 The power of positive psychology Psychological capital and work engagement 54 Engagement and human thriving Complementary perspectives on energy and connections to work 132 Gretchen M Spreitzer Chak Fu Lam and Charlotte Fritz David Sweetman and Fred Luthans 6 The gain spiral of resources and work engagement Sustaining a positive worklife 118 Marisa Salanova Wilmar B Schaufeli Despoina Xanthopoulou and Arnold B Bakker The push and pull of work The di erences between workaholism and work engagement 39 Toon W Taris Wilmar B Schaufeli and Akihito Shimazu 5 A meta-analysis of work engagement Relationships with burnout demands resources and consequences 102 Jonathon R B Halbesleben Not all days are created equal The concept of state work engagement 25 Sabine Sonnentag Christian Dormann and Evangelia Demerouti 4 Using the job demands-resources model to predict engagement Analysing a conceptual model 85 11 Feeling energetic at work On vigor s antecedents 69 From thought to action Employee work engagement and job performance 147 Evangelia Demerouti and Russell Cropanzano Arie Shirom v vi 12 CONTENTS Building engagement The design and evaluation of interventions 164 Author index 197 Subject index 205 Michael P Leiter and Christina Maslach 13 Where to go from here Integration and future research on work engagement 181 Arnold B Bakker and Michael P Leiter Contributors Arnold B Bakker Erasmus University Rotterdam Institute of Psychology PO Box 1738 T12-47 3000 DR Rotterdam The Netherlands Jari J Hakanen Centre of Expertise for Work Organizations Finnish Institute of Occupational Health FI-00250 Helsinki Finland Jonathon R B Halbesleben Department of Management and Marketing University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire PO Box 4004 Eau Claire WI 54702 USA Russell Cropanzano Department of Management and Organizations University of Arizona Tucson AZ 85721 0108 USA Chak Fu Lam Department of Management and Organizations Ross School of Business University of Michigan Ann Arbor MI 48109-1234 USA Evangelia Demerouti Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Engineering and Innovation Sciences Human Performance Management Group PO Box 513 5600 MB Eindhoven Christian Dormann University of Mainz 55122 Mainz Germany Michael P Leiter Centre for Organizational Research and Development Acadia University Halifax NS B4P 2R6 Canada Charlotte Fritz Department of Psychology Bowling Green State University Bowling Green OH 43403 USA Fred Luthans Department of Management University of Nebraska-Lincoln Lincoln NE 68588-0491 USA vii viii LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS Tel Aviv 69978 Israel Christina Maslach Department of Psychology University of California Berkeley CA 94720-1650 USA Gert Roodt Centre for Work Performance Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management Faculty of Management University of Johannesburg South Africa Marisa Salanova Department of Social Psychology Universitat Jaume I 12071 Castell n Spain Wilmar B Schaufeli Department of Work and Organizational Psychology Utrecht University PO Box 80 140 3508 TC Utrecht The Netherlands Akihito Shimazu Department of Mental Health The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine Tokyo 113-0033 Japan Arie Shirom Faculty of Management Tel-Aviv University POB 39010 Sabine Sonnentag Department of Psychology University of Konstanz PO Box 42 78457 Konstanz Germany Gretchen M Spreitzer Department of Management and Organizations Ross School of Business University of Michigan Ann Arbor MI 48109-1234 USA David Sweetman Global Leadership Institute Department of Management University of Nebraska-Lincoln Lincoln NE 68588-0491 USA Toon W Taris Department of Work and Organizational Psychology Utrecht University PO Box 80 140 3508 TC Utrecht The Netherlands Despoina Xanthopoulou Department of Work and Organizational Psychology Institute of Psychology Erasmus University Rotterdam PO Box 1738 T12-56 3000 DR Rotterdam The Netherlands 1 Work engagement Introduction Michael P Leiter and Arnold B Bakker William loves his work and can talk about it really enthusiastically Every day he feels driven to excel and he throws himself into work passionately He nds his job challenging exciting and enjoyable and does much more than is requested just for the fun of it William has the autonomy to be creative and has the feeling that he learns new things all the time Although he is always busy and is usually completely immersed in his work he rarely feels tired or exhausted Instead work seems to give him energy and every day he feels happy to start working again Even if he sometimes faces di culties William persists He is really dedicated to his work and nds that he deals with interesting and important issues Nevertheless he can relax and disengage from work and he knows how to downplay his work Although he often gets totally absorbed by his work there are also other things outside work that he enjoys to the fullest William s motto is work is fun Anonymous engaged worker work has gained critical importance in the information service economy of the 21st century The contemporary world of work thrives on creativity In the current economy advances in quality or e ciency occur through new ideas To compete e ectively companies not only must recruit the top talent but must inspire employees to apply their full capabilities to their work Otherwise part of that rare and expensive resource remains unavailable Thus modern organizations expect their employees to be proactive and show initiative take responsibility for their own professional development and to be committed to high quality performance standards They need employees who feel energetic and dedicated i e who are engaged with their work As we will see in this book work engagement can make a true di erence for employees and may o er organizations a competitive advantage see Demerouti Cropanzano Chapter 11 What is work engagement Work engagement is a positive ful lling a ective-motivational state of work-related wellbeing that can be seen as the antipode of job Employees psychological connection with their 1 2 LEITER AND BAKKER burnout Engaged employees have high levels of energy and are enthusiastically involved in their work Bakker Schaufeli Leiter Taris 2008 Most scholars agree that engagement includes an energy dimension and an identi cation dimension Thus engagement is characterized by a high level of vigor and strong identi cation with one s work The perspective of this book is that the eld is best served by a consistent construct for work engagement one that focuses on employees experience of work activity Unfortunately the broad exploration of constructs over the past decade has not produced consensus about its meaning In contrast a recent review by Macey and Schneider 2008 documented the proliferation of various de nitions of engagement many of them being old wine in new bottles These authors try to solve the conceptual problem by proposing employee engagement as an allinclusive umbrella term that contains di erent types of engagement i e trait engagement state engagement and behavioral engagement each of which entails various conceptualizations e g proactive personality trait engagement involvement state engagement and organizational citizenship behavior behavioral engagement In contrast we advocate the use of engagement as a speci c well-de ned and properly operationalized psychological state that is open to empirical research and practical application We de ne work engagement as a motivational concept When engaged employees feel compelled to strive towards a challenging goal They want to succeed Work engagement goes beyond responding to the immediate situation Employees accept a personal commitment to attaining these goals Further work engagement re ects the personal energy employees bring to their work Engaged employees not only have the capacity to be energetic they enthusiastically apply that energy to their work They do not hold back They do not keep their energy in reserve for something important they accept that today s work deserves their energy In addition work engagement re ects intense involvement in work Engaged employees pay attention They consider the important details while getting to the essence of challenging problems Engaged employees become absorbed in their work experiencing ow in which they lose track of time and diminish their response to distractions Work engagement pertains to any type of challenging work It describes employees ability to bring their full capacity to solving problems connecting with people and developing innovative services Management makes a di erence as well Employees responses to organizational policies practices and structures a ect their potential to experience engagement In a stable work environment employees maintain a consistent level of work engagement Work engagement thrives in settings that demonstrate strong connections between corporate and individual values On the one hand companies promote their values with employees inspiring their allegiance On the other hand companies are responsive to the values employees bring to their work They maintain su cient exibility to accommodate a variety of approaches to their complex challenges They manage human resources in a responsive way that appreciates employees distinct contributions to the enterprise As we will see throughout this book work engagement has implications for performance both individual and corporate While engaged employees nd their work more enjoyable they turn that enjoyment into more e ective action When do people experience work engagement Previous studies have consistently shown that job resources such as social support from colleagues and supervisors performance feedback skill variety autonomy and learning opportunities are positively associated with work engagement Halbesleben Chapter 8 this volume Schaufeli Salanova 2007 Job resources either play an intrinsic motivational role because they foster employees growth learning and development or they play an extrinsic motivational role because they are instrumental in achieving work goals In the former case job resources ful ll basic human needs such as the needs for autonomy relatedness and competence Van den Broeck INTRODUCTION Vansteenkiste De Witte Lens 2008 For instance proper feedback fosters learning thereby increasing job competence whereas decision latitude and social support satisfy the need for autonomy and the need to belong respectively Job resources may also play an extrinsic motivational role because work environments that o er many resources foster the willingness to dedicate one s e orts and abilities to the work task Meijman Mulder 1998 In such environments it is likely that the task will be completed successfully and that the work goal will be attained For instance supportive colleagues and performance feedback increase the likelihood of being successful in achieving one s work goals In either case be it through the satisfaction of basic needs or through the achievement of work goals the outcome is positive and engagement is likely to occur Schaufeli Bakker 2004 Schaufeli Salanova 2007 Job resources become more salient and gain their motivational potential when employees are confronted with high job demands Bakker Demerouti 2007 Hakanen Roodt Chapter 7 this volume Hakanen Bakker and Demerouti 2005 tested this interaction hypothesis in a sample of Finnish dentists employed in the public sector It was hypothesized that job resources are most bene cial in maintaining work engagement under conditions of high job demands The results were generally consistent with this hypothesis For example variability in professional skills boosted work engagement when qualitative workload was high and mitigated the negative e ect of high qualitative workload on work engagement Conceptually similar ndings have been reported by Bakker Hakanen Demerouti and Xanthopoulou 2007 in their study of Finnish teachers They found that job resources act as bu ers and diminish the negative relationship between pupil misbehavior and work engagement In addition they found that job resources particularly in uence work engagement when teachers are confronted with high levels of pupil misconduct These notions and ndings are compatible with the idea of a t between a person and a job or organization Person job t is conceptualized 3 as having two aspects 1 the t between an individual s knowledge skills and abilities on the one hand and the demands of the job on the other hand i e demands abilities t Cable Judge 1996 and 2 the t between the needs and desires of an individual and what is provided by the job needs supplies t Cable DeRue 2002 Research has indeed shown that employees who perceive a high level of congruence between their personal characteristics and the requirements of the job experience a high level of job satisfaction Brkich Je s Carless 2002 Person organization t is de ned as the compatibility between people and entire organizations Lauver Kristof-Brown 2001 Sekiguchi 2007 A person may t in the organization because they hold the same values i e supplementary P-O t or because the person and the organization meet each other s needs i e complementary P-O t Carless 2005 Sekiguchi 2007 Work engagement thrives in settings that demonstrate strong connections between corporate and individual values On the one hand companies promote their values with employees inspiring their allegiance These companies re ect seriously on their values articulate them clearly and enact policies to assure that their values direct important decisions On the other hand companies are responsive to the values employees bring to their work They consider employees professional values as assets that assure responsible dedication to work Employees do not arrive with identical values so companies support engagement by accommodating a variety of approaches to work In this way a clear and responsive approach to the congruence of individual and corporate values encourages diverse perspectives from employees to converge on major objectives re ecting core corporate values The importance of engagement Work engagement has far-reaching implications for employees performance The energy and focus inherent in work engagement allow employees to bring their full potential to the job This energetic focus enhances the quality of their core work responsibilities They have the capacity and the 4 LEITER AND BAKKER motivation to concentrate exclusively on the tasks at hand Further work engagement supports extra-role performance The complexity of contemporary workplaces works against specifying every detail of an employer s expectation In addition to a position s core responsibilities employers hope that incumbents go beyond the formal structure of their positions to take initiative A proactive approach to work includes developing new knowledge responding to unique opportunities as well as going the extra mile in supporting the company s community through mentoring volunteering or attentiveness to colleagues With initiative employees anticipate new developments in their professions and strive to position themselves as leaders in their elds Through their actions they go beyond living within the con nes of their job description to craft their job into something that dynamically adapts to the ever-changing worklife that has become the norm Work engagement resonates with the broadenand-build perspective of Fredrickson and her colleagues Fredrickson 1998 2001 Cognitive broadening lies at the core of this perspective It builds on research demonstrating that positive emotions increase the exibility Isen Daubman 1984 creativity Isen Daubman Nowicki 1987 integration Isen Rosenzweig Young 1991 and e ciency Isen Means 1983 of thought In contrast to the narrowing focus of the stress experience positive emotions go beyond neutral states of mind to inspire wider perspectives on the self and the situation Isen and colleagues Ashby Isen Turken 1999 Isen 2002 have proposed dopamine circulation as a physiological basis for the observed broadening that accompanies positive emotions Fredrickson Tugade Waugh Larkin 2003 Evidence for the broadening hypothesis has been reported by Fredrickson and Branigan 2005 and by Isen 2000 Accordingly positive a ect produces a broad and exible cognitive organization as well as the ability to integrate diverse material The question is now whether this broaden-and-build e ect will manifest itself in enhanced job performance as one would assume because of the accumulation of personal resources Fredrickson 2001 has argued that we need to investigate how and whether broadened thought action repertoires are translated into decisions and actions In an organizational context Fredrickson and Losada 2005 showed that when the ratio of managers positive to negative emotions is relatively high during business meetings they ask more questions and their range between questioning and advocacy is broader resulting in better performance Evidence for the build hypothesis has been reported by Xanthopoulou Bakker Demerouti and Schaufeli 2009 Their diary study revealed that daily job resources generate positive emotions that in turn have a positive impact on employees personal resources In addition in an innovative experimental study Fredrickson Cohn Co ey Pek and Finkel 2008 used a manipulation to increase positive emotional experiences The employees who participated in this experiment either attended a loving-kindness meditation workshop or had no intervention Results indicated that meditation practices increased the daily experience of positive emotions which in turn produced gains in personal resources 8 weeks later including gains in mastery and self-acceptance Consequently these increments in personal resources predicted increased life satisfaction and reduced depressive symptoms see also Salanova Schaufeli Xanthopoulou and Bakker Chapter 9 this volume Fredrickson s theory gives additional substance to the concept of work engagement It goes beyond the general notion that a positive a nity with work increases employees attachment to the setting or its activities Broaden-and-build proposes cognitive mechanisms underlying that general a nity translating it into cognitive processes and perspectives That is positive emotions go beyond the general motivating properties of pleasant feelings They change cognitive processes in ways that open possibilities that people overlook when under pressure or experiencing distress Positive emotions encourage the integrative creative perspective that adds value to enterprises in the information service economy of the 21st century This speci c mechanism increases con dence in the connection between INTRODUCTION e orts to develop supportive work environments and enhancing individual performance that will contribute to corporate success In short work engagement is both e cient as well as ful lling The social context of work engagement The social context of work engagement emphasizes the concept s importance as it has relevance for the primary relationships of employees Collegial relationships hold the potential for social contagion in which employees not only respond similarly to their shared work environment but also in uence one another s experience of engagement Bakker Demerouti 2009 Bakker Van Emmerik Euwema 2006 Colleagues as well are potential resources as sources of knowledge emotional support materials that pertain to the engagement experience Both rst-line supervision and senior management de ne leadership within the organization They symbolize the values of the organization determine the ow of organizational resources and model to employees ways of thinking feeling and reacting to important events in organizational life Schein 1985 Senior management plays an important role in articulating the core values of organizations translating them into formal mission statements and policies while front-line supervisors enact these values through their day-to-day actions and interactions with employees Finally work engagement translates into performance in many industries through employees interactions with customers clients students or patients It is in these interactions that the energy dedication absorption or e cacy that lie at the heart of work engagement turn into action Although work engagement is a personal experience of individual employees it does not occur in isolation A thorough consideration of the sources experience and consequences of engagement go beyond the individual to consider the social dynamics among individuals as well as the larger institutional dynamics re ecting an organization s culture The conceptual models presented in this book that guide research on work engagement consider 5 the experience as embedded in organizational cultures The focus on work resources in these models acknowledges an intrinsic quality in people to make full use of their skills and abilities in their careers Unfortunately many work situations fail to provide the resources leadership or guidance that would permit employees to ful ll their aspirations These gaps between potential and reality reduce an organization s capacity to ful ll its mission while discouraging employees dedication to their roles Work engagement presents as serious a challenge to individuals as it does to organizations In the rst instance employees opportunities for secure employment rest on their employers productivity In competitive global markets companies that cannot make e ective use of their employees have a dim future But engagement remains important to individuals beyond their contribution to their current employer Career tracks in the 21st century anticipate many more changes and larger shifts than was the case in the 20th century As active participants in the job market individuals bene t from demonstrating their personal productivity Demonstrating one s personal energy dedication and e cacy will open more and better opportunities while building a dynamic and rewarding career In conclusion work engagement is not solely a concern for management it matters to each employee It is not enough for employees to respond to management initiatives regarding workplace resources or corporate values Everyone shares responsibility for developing vibrant engaging work environments Structure of the book We hope that this book will contribute to that goal The scope of the book includes a serious re ection on the concept of work engagement We consider the source of the term its position in the complex world of organizational psychology and its distinguishing qualities We devote considerable attention to identifying the qualities of work environments that contribute to the experience of engagement and that help employees avoid its negative alternative burnout Most importantly we consider work engagement as 6 LEITER AND BAKKER subject to change The lack of work engagement today does not condemn an individual a work group or an organization to a dull worklife forever We consider how engagement uctuates from day to day in response to events as well as the potential of concerted e ort on the local or organizational level to support a more engaged approach to worklife Together the chapters in this book present work engagement as an important focus for study and a vital target for organizational development Work engagement and neighboring concepts The book begins by pinning down the concept of work engagement While acknowledging a diversity of perspectives as a healthy sign in the early years of an idea these chapters re ect on the current state of things In Chapter 2 Schaufeli and Bakker address the question of measurement The capacity to derive a credible quantitative indicator of work engagement provides a necessary prerequisite for assessing a work setting s current state and to evaluate the impact of initiatives designed to enhance work engagement The chapter considers current measures and notes the virtues of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale UWES In Chapter 3 Sonnentag Dormann and Demerouti consider how engagement varies over short periods of time They review research that identi es workplace events that precede changes in work engagement as well as downstream consequences of these changes This perspective underscores the extent to which work engagement is a variable quality of worklife rather than an enduring characteristic It is a perspective that encourages de nitive action to build work engagement among employees In Chapter 4 Taris Schaufeli and Shimazu contrast work engagement with other constructs with more mixed implications for the quality of worklife By positioning work engagement in contrast to workaholism burnout and rust out the chapter clari es the core elements of the concept contrasting the positive qualities associated with work engagement against the negative end of those same continuums De ning the position of work engagement in this conceptual space supports the concept s distinct contribution to organizational psychology Chapter 5 by Sweetman and Luthans considers work engagement as a vital concept within the domain of positive psychology The chapter presents the core rationale for positive psychology to provide a framework to consider work engagement s place within that domain The authors consider the quality of psychological capital as a fundamental resource in developing ful lling and productive lives at work Positive psychology legitimizes the focus on energy and dedication as fundamental dimensions of existence Rather than focus on the problems that arise when these qualities break down positive psychology considers in depth the psychological bene ts derived when these qualities are working well In Chapter 6 Shirom extends this perspective in his chapter on vigor The chapter provides a far-reaching consideration of the centrality of subjective energy in personal experience at work and beyond The chapter considers a diverse range of research and conceptual work to support the central role of energy In addition the chapter gives a strong consideration to the health implications of work engagement The organizational context of work engagement The second part of the book considers the organizational context in which work engagement thrives or fails Chapter 7 presents the job demands-resources JD-R model of work engagement This perspective has emphasized the important role of resource access at work to the development and sustaining of work engagement It provides a direct contrast to models of job burnout that place a greater emphasis on demands such as work overload unresolved con ict and values con ict In this chapter Hakanen and Roodt examine research to demonstrate the model s viability In Chapter 8 Halbesleben extends this perspective by conducting a meta-analysis of work engagement research Although the research record remains somewhat modest at this time there are su cient studies to identify persistent INTRODUCTION patterns across samples and occupations The review supports core aspects of the JD-R model while bringing fresh perspectives to the concept The analysis emphasizes both the quantity of organizational resources and the diversity of resources in sustaining the various components of work engagement Chapter 9 considers the self-sustaining quality of work engagement Salanova Schaufeli Xanthopoulou and Bakker consider longitudinal research that a rms the long-term impact of resource enrichment on employees experience of engagement and the complementary relationship of work engagement and the ongoing enhancement of resources This perspective re ects upon the conceptual challenges in untangling causal pathways in complex social systems in which major experiences have multiple in uences and multiple outcomes The chapter s encouraging message is that e orts to enhance work engagement through enriched resources have a potential to sustain over time Chapter 10 by Spreitzer Lam and Fritz positions engagement in relation to thriving as an alternative perspective on positive connections with work Their perspective emphasizes organizational learning as a critical dimension of employees developments through their careers and in their tenure in a job The chapter provides a thoughtful consideration of leadership as a de nitive quality of engaging work settings This chapter emphasizes the importance of both senior leadership and rst-line supervisors in developing a workplace culture conducive to engagement and thriving In Chapter 11 Demerouti and Cropanzano examine the evidence for the crucial relationship of work engagement with performance In contrasting work engagement with job satisfaction the authors demonstrate robust relationships between employees thoughts and feelings about their work with the behaviors on the job In their review of the engagement performance relationship the authors acknowledge the scope of unresolved questions that require extensive and rigorous research to address In Chapter 12 Leiter and Maslach consider the design and e cacy of interventions to enhance 7 work engagement This chapter provides an overall conceptual model for considering intervention while giving speci c direction on the design of e ective organizational action Through a case example the chapter reviews the speci c points of assessment planning action and evaluation The chapter argues for management interventions as a means of having the greatest impact on a workplace In Chapter 13 we re ect on the diverse perspectives included in the book and describe our expectations for the future of work engagement We also present a research agenda that identi es seven key research questions that would extend our perspectives on work engagement its relationship to other constructs related to the quality of worklife and strategies for increasing the prevalence of work engagement in organizations Throughout the book the authors have provided speci c points on their chapters practical implications While we intend to provide the state of the art on high quality work engagement research we also intend to present engagement as a practical idea All of the research in this book has occurred in collaboration with people working in real organizations facing the challenges of productivity health and well-being We are constantly considering ways in which organizations can apply new ideas to their challenges References Ashby F G Isen A M Turken A U 1999 A neuropsychological theory of positive a ect and its in uence on cognition Psychological Review 106 529 550 Bakker A B Demerouti E 2007 The Job Demands-Resources model State of the art Journal of Managerial Psychology 22 309 328 Bakker A B Demerouti E 2009 The crossover of work engagement between working couples A closer look at the role of empathy Journal of Managerial Psychology 24 220 236 Bakker A B Hakanen J J Demerouti E Xanthopoulou D 2007 Job resources boost work engagement particularly when job demands are high Journal of Educational Psychology 99 274 284 Bakker A B Schaufeli W B Leiter M P Taris T W 2008 Work engagement An emerging 8 LEITER AND BAKKER concept in occupational health psychology Work Stress 22 187 200 Bakker A B Van Emmerik I J H Euwema M C 2006 Crossover of burnout and engagement in work teams Work and Occupations 33 464 489 Brkich M Je s D Carless S A 2002 A global self-report measure of person-job t European Journal of Psychological Assessment 18 43 51 Cable D M DeRue D S 2002 The convergent and discriminant validity of subjective t perceptions Journal of Applied Psychology 87 875 884 Cable D M Judge T A 1996 Person organization t job choice decisions and organizational entry Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 67 294 311 Carless S A 2005 Person-job t versus personorganization t as predictors of organizational attraction and job acceptance intentions A longitudinal study Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 78 411 429 Fredrickson B L 1998 What good are positive emotions Review of General Psychology 2 300 319 Fredrickson B L 2001 The role of positive emotions in positive psychology The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions American Psychologist 56 218 226 Fredrickson B L Branigan C A 2005 Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought action repertoires Cognition and Emotion 19 313 332 Fredrickson B L Cohn M A Co ey K A Pek J Finkel S M 2008 Open hearts build lives Positive emotions induced through meditation build consequential personal resources Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95 1045 1062 Fredrickson B L Losada M F 2005 Positive a ect and the complex dynamics of human ourishing American Psychologist 60 678 686 Fredrickson B L Tugade M M Waugh C E Larkin G R 2003 What good are positive emotions in crises A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th 2001 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84 365 376 Hakanen J J Bakker A B Demerouti E 2005 How dentists cope with their job demands and stay engaged The moderating role of job resources European Journal of Oral Sciences 113 479 487 Isen A M 2000 Positive a ect and decision making In M Lewis J M Haviland-Jones Eds Hand- book of emotions 2nd ed pp 417 435 New York Guilford Press Isen A M 2002 A role for neuropsychology in understanding the facilitating in uence of positive a ect on social behavior and cognitive processes In C R Snyder S J Lopez Eds Handbook of positive psychology pp 528 540 New York Oxford University Press Isen A M Daubman K A 1984 The in uence of a ect on categorization Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47 1206 1217 Isen A M Daubman K A Nowicki G P 1987 Positive a ect facilitates creative problem solving Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 1122 1131 Isen A M Means B 1983 The in uence of positive a ect on decision-making strategy Social Cognition 2 18 31 Isen A M Rosenzweig A S Young M J 1991 The in uence of positive a ect on clinical problem solving Medical Decision Making 11 221 227 Lauver K J Kristof-Brown A 2001 Distinguishing between employees perceptions of person-job and person-organization t Journal of Vocational Behavior 59 454 470 Macey W H Schneider B 2008 The meaning of employee engagement Industrial and Organizational Psychology 1 3 30 Meijman T F Mulder G 1998 Psychological aspects of workload In P J D Drenth H Thierry Eds Handbook of work and organizational psychology Vol 2 Work psychology pp 5 33 Hove Psychology Press Schein E 1985 Organizational culture and leadership A dynamic view San Francisco Jossey Bass Schaufeli W B Bakker A B 2004 Job demands job resources and their relationship with burnout and engagement A multi-sample study Journal of Organizational Behavior 25 293 315 Schaufeli W B Salanova M 2007 Work engagement An emerging psychological concept and its implications for organizations In S W Gilliland D D Steiner D P Skarlicki Eds Research in social issues in management Volume 5 Managing social and ethical issues in organizations Greenwich CT Information Age Publishers Sekiguchi T 2007 A contingency perspective of the importance of PJ t and PO t in employee selection Journal of Managerial Psychology 22 118 131 Van den Broeck A Vansteenkiste M De Witte H Lens W 2008 Explaining the relationships between job characteristics burnout and engagement The INTRODUCTION role of basic psychological need satisfaction Work Stress 22 277 294 Xanthopoulou D Bakker A B Demerouti E Schaufeli W B 2009 A diary study on the happy 9 worker How job resources generate positive emotions and build personal resources Manuscript submitted for publication 2 De ning and measuring work engagement Bringing clarity to the concept Wilmar B Schaufeli and Arnold B Bakker Engagement has become a rather popular term rst in business and consultancy and recently also in academia The origin of the term employee engagement is not entirely clear but most likely it was rst used in the 1990s by the Gallup organization Buckingham Co man 1999 Although the phrases employee engagement and work engagement are typically used interchangeably we prefer the latter because it is more speci c Namely work engagement refers to the relationship of the employee with his or her work whereas employee engagement may also include the relationship with the organization As we will see in the section on Engagement in business by including the relationship with the organization the distinction between engagement and traditional concepts such as organizational commitment and extra-role behavior gets blurred The current popularity of engagement is illustrated by Table 2 1 An internet search yielded almost 650 000 hits though narrowing the search down to only scholarly publications many of them from the gray area e g white papers fact sheets and consultancy reports reduced the number of hits to less than 2000 These impressive numbers stand in sharp contrast to the dearth of publications on engagement that are included in PsycINFO the leading database of academic publications in psychology The most comprehensive PsycINFO search revealed one hundred publications with either employee engagement or work engagement in the title or in the abstract 10 DEFINING AND MEASURING WORK ENGAGEMENT 11 TABLE 2 1 The popularity of engagement state March 2008 The internet Google Employee engagement Work engagement Total PsycINFO Google scholar Anywhere In title 626 000 1120 35 12 21 400 785 66 20 645 130 1898 100 32 of any publication The most restrictive search with either employee engagement or work engagement in the title of any peer-reviewed international journal yielded only about thirty hits If anything Table 2 1 illustrates that compared to the popularity of engagement in business and among consultants there is a surprising scarcity of academic research Moreover almost all scienti c articles appeared after the turn of the century This recent academic interest in engagement links in with the emergence of the so-called Positive Psychology that studies human strength and optimal functioning instead of the traditional four D s Disease Damage Disorder and Disability A telling example is the switch from job burnout to work engagement Maslach Schaufeli Leiter 2001 This chapter presents an overview of the way engagement is conceptualized and measured particularly in academia but also in business Our purpose is not only to present a state-of-the art review of current scienti c knowledge but also to link this with notions of engagement that are being used in business contexts particularly by leading international consultancy rms In doing so we focus on work engagement across all kinds of jobs and not on such speci c types of engagement as school engagement athlete engagement soldier engagement or student engagement that have been described in the literature as well The chapter sets out with an overview of various concepts of engagement including a discussion of related concepts such as extra-role behavior personal initiative job involvement organizational commitment job satisfaction positive a ectivity ow and workaholism Next various engagement questionnaires are presented and their psychometric quality is discussed in terms of reliability and validity The closing section attempts to integrate the various conceptualizations of engagement into a more comprehensive model of employee motivation and engagement The concept of work engagement Everyday connotations of engagement refer to involvement commitment passion enthusiasm absorption focused e ort and energy In a similar vein the Merriam-Webster dictionary describes engagement as emotional involvement or commitment and as the state of being in gear However no agreement exists among practitioners or scholars on a particular conceptualization of work engagement Below the major business and academic perspectives on engagement are discussed in greater detail Engagement in business Virtually all major human resources consultancy rms are in the business of improving levels of work engagement Almost without exception these rms claim that they have found conclusive and compelling evidence that work engagement increases pro tability through higher productivity sales customer satisfaction and employee retention The message for organizations is clear increasing work engagement pays o However with the exception of the Gallup Organization Harter Schmidt Hayes 2002 this claim is not substantiated by publications in peer-reviewed journals Instead of presenting scienti c evidence

Author Arnold B Bakker and Michael P Leiter Isbn 1841697362 File size 1 5 MB Year 2010 Pages 218 Language English File format PDF Category Psychology As a doctoral student in the writing phase of dissertation my academic advisor and chair recommended this book I found it a valuable aid during my synthesis of the theoretical literature and empirical evidence of the phenomenon of work engagement I appreciated the operational definitions conceptual diagrams and illustrations of the finding

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