Women s Literacy In Early Modern Spain And The New World

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  • ISBN : 978 1409427131
  • Year : 2011
  • Language: English


Women s Literacy in Early Modern Spain and the New World Women and Gender in the Early Modern World Series Editors Allyson Poska The University of Mary Washington USA Abby Zanger The study of women and gender offers some of the most vital and innovative challenges to current scholarship on the early modern period For more than a decade now Women and Gender in the Early Modern World has served as a forum for presenting fresh ideas and original approaches to the field Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary in scope this Ashgate book series strives to reach beyond geographical limitations to explore the experiences of early modern women and the nature of gender in Europe the Americas Asia and Africa We welcome proposals for both single-author volumes and edited collections which expand and develop this continually evolving field of study Titles in the series include Guardianship Gender and the Nobility in Early Modern Spain Grace E Coolidge Education and Women in the Early Modern Hispanic World Elizabeth Teresa Howe Early Modern Women and Transnational Communities of Letters Edited by Julie D Campbell and Anne R Larsen Women s Letters Across Europe 1400 1700 Form and Persuasion Edited by Jane Couchman and Ann Crabb Women s Literacy in Early Modern Spain and the New World Edited by Anne J Cruz University of Miami USA and Rosilie Hern ndez University of Illinois at Chicago USA The editors and contributors 2011 All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher Anne J Cruz and Rosilie Hern ndez have asserted their rights under the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 to be identified as the editors of this work Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited Ashgate Publishing Company Wey Court East Suite 420 Union Road 101 Cherry Street Farnham Burlington Surrey GU9 7PT VT 05401-4405 England USA www ashgate com British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Women s literacy in early modern Spain and the New World Women and gender in the early modern world 1 Women Books and reading Spain History 16th century 2 Women Books and reading Spain History 17th century 3 Women and literature Spain History 16th century 4 Women and literature Spain History 17th century 5 Literacy Spain History 16th century 6 Literacy Spain History 17th century 7 Women Education Spain History 16th century 8 Women Education Spain History 17th century 9 Women Books and reading New Spain History 16th century 10 Women Books and reading Colombia History 16th century I Series II Cruz Anne J 1941 III Hernandez Rosilie 028 9 082 0946-dc22 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Women s literacy in early modern Spain and the new world edited by Anne J Cruz and Rosilie Hernandez p cm Women and gender in the early modern world Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-1-4094-2713-1 hardback alk paper ISBN 978-1-4094-2714-8 ebook alk paper 1 Women Books and reading Spain History 2 Literacy in literature 3 Women and literature Spain History 16th century 4 Women and literature Spain History 17th century 5 Literacy Spain History 6 Women Education Spain History 7 Women Education New Spain History I Cruz Anne J 1941 II Hernandez Rosilie Z1039 W65W65 2011 028 90820946 dc22 2011000194 ISBN 9781409427131 hbk ISBN 9781409427148 ebk II Contents List of Figures Notes on Contributors Acknowledgments Introduction Anne J Cruz Part 1 vii ix xiii 1 The Practices of Women s Literacy 1 Women s Reading Habits Book Dedications to Female Patrons in Early Modern Spain Nieves Baranda Leturio 19 2 Reading over Men s Shoulders Noblewomen s Libraries and Reading Practices Anne J Cruz 41 3 From Mother to Daughter Educational Lineage in the Correspondence between the Countess of Palam s and Estefania de Requesens Montserrat P rez-Toribio 4 The Education Books and Reading Habits of Ana de Mendoza y de la Cerda Princess of boli 1540 1592 Trevor J Dadson Part 2 59 79 Conventual Literacy in Spain and the New World 5 Wondrous Words Miraculous Literacy and Real Literacy in the Convents of Early Modern Spain Darcy R Donahue 105 6 Let Your Women Keep Silence The Pauline Dictum and Women s Education Elizabeth Teresa Howe 123 7 Women s Literacy and Masculine Authority The Case of Sor Juana In s de la Cruz and Antonio N ez de Miranda Stephanie L Kirk 139 8 Convent Education in Nueva Granada White and Black or Tonalities of Gray Clara E Herrera 159 Women s Literacy in Early Modern the Newk77 World 7 com vi w eandboo oks wwSpain ebo free Part 3 Representing Women s Literacy in Art and Literature 9 Learning through Love in Lope de Vega s Drama Adrienne L Mart n 177 10 Ana Caro and the Literary Academies of Seventeenth-Century Spain 191 Alicia R Zuese 11 Mar a de Zayas or Memory Chains and the Education of a Learned Woman Yolanda Gamboa-Tusquets 12 The Politics of Exemplarity Biblical Women and the Education of the Spanish Lady in Mart n Carrillo Sebasti n de Herrera Barnuevo and Mar a de Guevara Rosilie Hern ndez 209 225 13 Learning at her Mother s Knee Saint Anne the Virgin Mary and the Iconography of Women s Literacy Emilie L Bergmann 243 Index 263 List of Figures 13 1 Jan van Eyck c 1395 1441 Annunciation 1434 1436 Reproduced with permission of the National Gallery Washington D C Detail 247 Gerard David 1450 60 1523 and Workshop Saint Anne Altarpiece 1500 1520 Center panel Reproduced with permission of the National Gallery Washington D C 250 13 2 13 3 Juan de Roelas 1570 1625 Education of the Virgin 1610 1615 Reproduced with permission of the Museo Provincial de Bellas Artes Seville 252 Bartolom Esteban Murillo 1618 1682 Education of the Virgin ca 1665 Museo del Prado Madrid Reproduced with permission of SASKIA Ltd Photo Dr Ronald V Wiedenhoeft 253 13 5 Juan Mart nez Monta s 1568 1649 Saint Anne Teaching the Virgin 1627 1630 Seville Convent of Santa Ana Discalced Carmelites Polychromed wood sculpture Saint Anne 1 55 m Virgin 1 30 m Reproduced with permission of Fundaci Institut Amatller d Art Hisp nic Arxiu Mas 254 13 4 This page has been left blank intentionally Notes on Contributors Nieves Baranda Leturio is Professor of Spanish literature at the Universidad Nacional de Educaci n a Distancia UNED Madrid She has published on romances of chivalry didactic literature and travel literature For over ten years her research has mainly focused on Spanish women writers with publications including Cortejo a lo prohibido Lectoras y escritoras en la Espa a moderna Arco Libros 2005 the special edition of Voz y Letra on women writers 16 2 2006 and numerous journal articles Her anthology on women s autobiographies to 1700 is currently in press She is the director among other projects of the research project BIESES Bibliograf a de Escritoras Espa olas Edad Media-Siglo XVIII She is the editor of the series Biblioteca de Escritoras published by the Spanish press Castalia Emilie L Bergmann is Professor of Spanish at the University of California Berkeley specializing in early modern Spanish literature She is co-editor with Stacey Schlau of Approaches to Teaching Sor Juana In s de la Cruz MLA 2007 Her publications include studies of gender and visual culture in the poetry prose and theater of the seventeenth century Most recently she has written on music and visual perception in Sor Juana s Primero sue o and on cross-dressing and female violence in the romancero and the comedia Anne J Cruz is Professor of Spanish and Cooper Fellow at the University of Miami She has published on Spanish Petrarchism Cervantes Golden Age theater the picaresque novel and early modern women s writings She has recently edited Symbolic and Material Circulation between Spain and England 1554 1604 Ashgate 2008 Approaches to Teaching Lazarillo de Tormes and the Picaresque Tradition MLA 2008 and with Mihoko Suzuki The Rule of Women in Early Modern Europe Illinois UP 2009 Her co-translation of Chimalpahin s Conquest A Nahua Historian s Rewriting of Francisco L pez de G mara s La conquista de M xico was published by Stanford University Press in 2010 and her translation of The Life and Times of Mother Andrea by Tamesis Press in 2011 Trevor J Dadson is Professor of Hispanic Studies at Queen Mary University of London Previously he held the same position at Queen s University Belfast and at the University of Birmingham He has written and published extensively on the literature especially poetry and political socioeconomic and cultural history of the Spanish Golden Age with special emphasis on the life and works of the poets Gabriel Boc ngel y Unzueta and Diego de Silva y Mendoza Count of Salinas He is widely known for his work on private libraries and book ownership and more recently for his ground-breaking research on the Moriscos of New Castile their assimilation into Castilian society and resistance to the expulsions of 1609 1614 He is currently working with Professor Helen Reed on an edition of all of the letters Women s Literacy in Early Modern the Newk77 World 7 com w eandboo oks wwSpain ebo free and documents written and or signed by the Princess of boli to be accompanied by a new biography based on the new material they have found He has in press with the University of Granada a variorum edition of his historical articles on the Count of Salinas while his latest publication is a study of the Rimas 1634 of Lupercio and Bartolom Leonardo de Argensola Instituci n Fernando el Cat lico Zaragoza 2010 In 2008 he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy and from October 2011 he will be a Leverhulme Trust Major Research Fellow Darcy R Donahue is Professor of Spanish and Women s Studies at Miami University of Ohio Her scholarly interests include early modern Spanish narrative biography and the intersection of gender and religion She is the translator and editor of Ana de San Bartolom Autobiography and Other Writings Chicago UP 2008 Other publications include articles on Cervantes Teresa of vila and Ignatius of Loyola Yolanda Gamboa-Tusquets received her Ph D from Purdue University in 2000 She teaches Spanish literature and culture as well as workshops on translation at Florida Atlantic University Her research is devoted to early modern women writers and cultural studies with recent publications on architecture in Mar a de Zayas and on chocolate and the city of Naples as elements of the Spanish imaginary A recent publication is Cartograf a social en la narrativa de Mar a de Zayas Social Cartography in Maria de Zayas s Prose Works Biblioteca Nueva 2009 Her translation of Rafael Argullol s El fin del mundo como obra de arte The End of the World as a Work of Art Bucknell UP 2005 with an introduction to the Spanish contemporary essay and a critical afterword was nominated for the 2006 MLA Aldo and Jean Scaglione Award for a translation of a literary work Currently she is investigating the presence of Spanish women in early modern Florida Rosilie Hern ndez is Associate Professor of Spanish and Acting Director of the School of Literatures Cultural Studies and Linguistics at the University of Illinois at Chicago She is the author of Bucolic Metaphors History Subjectivity and Gender in the Early Modern Spanish Pastoral Studies in the Romance Languages and Literatures Series University of North Carolina Press 2006 and numerous articles most recently Cervantes s Don Quixote and the Arbitrista Reform Movement The Case of Aldonza Lorenzo Romance Quarterly 57 3 169 182 La fuerza del amor or the Power of Self-Love Zaya s response to Cervantes s La fuerza de la sangre Hispanic Review 70 39 57 and Luisa de Padilla s L grimas de la nobleza Vice Moral Authority and the Woman Writer Bulletin of Spanish Studies 87 7 897 914 She has begun a new book project on early modern Spanish accounts of women s history reception and reproduction in fictional and pictorial texts Clara E Herrera received her Ph D in Hispanic Studies from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 2010 Currently she is a lecturer in the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures at Lake Forest College Illinois She Notes onww Contributors xi w ebook777 com specializes in Colombian religious writers of the seventeenth century and has recently published the essay The Influences of Saint Catherine of Siena and Saint Teresa of vila on the Colombian Nun Jer nima Nava y Saavedra 1669 1727 in A New Companion to Hispanic Mysticism Brill s Companions to the Christian Tradition edited by Hilaire Kallendorf Elizabeth Teresa Howe received her doctorate in Spanish from Duke University in 1977 She is the author of Mystical Imagery Santa Teresa de Jes s and San Juan de la Cruz 1988 and Education and Women in the Early Modern Hispanic World 2008 She also edited the Instrucci n de la mujer cristiana of Juan Luis Vives 1995 and The Visionary Life of Madre Ana de San Agust n 2004 She is currently Professor of Spanish at Tufts University where she has taught since 1978 Stephanie L Kirk is Assistant Professor of Spanish and Women Gender and Sexuality Studies at Washington University in St Louis Her main teaching and research interests include the literature and culture of colonial Latin America and the early modern Atlantic world with a focus on gender and religion Her book Convent Life in Colonial Mexico A Tale of Two Communities was published by Florida UP in 2007 Kirk is currently at work on her second book project Enclosed Worlds Endless Possibilities Sor Juana and Culture in Colonial Mexico which examines Sor Juana de la Cruz s engagement with masculine institutional and ecclesiastical power in her explorations of the cultural and intellectual spheres of colonial Mexico and the wider Iberian world She has published articles in a number of journals including Luso-Brazilian Review Latin American Literary Review Revista Hisp nica Moderna Revista Iberoamericana and Early American Literature Adrienne L Mart n is Professor of Golden Age Spanish literature at the University of California Davis She has published on all genres of Golden Age literature and a wide range of topics including Cervantes G ngora humor sexuality eroticism and women s lyric She is the author of Cervantes and the Burlesque Sonnet U of California P 1991 and An Erotic Philology of Golden Age Spain Vanderbilt UP 2008 and co-editor of two anthologies of essays on erotic literature Venus venerada Tradiciones er ticas de la literatura espa ola Ed Complutense 2006 and Venus venerada II Literatura er tica y modernidad en Espa a Ed Complutense 2007 She is currently working on a book about animals in Golden Age literature and art Montserrat P rez-Toribio is Assistant Professor of Hispanic Studies at Wheaton College Massachusetts She received her Ph D from the University of Illinois Chicago where she specialized in early modern Spanish literature and women and gender studies She is presently working on a book manuscript that examines the literary and cultural depiction of women and their relationship to labor in sixteenth and seventeenth-century Spain Her study proposes a reevaluation of the multiple work spaces occupied by early modern Spanish women Women s Literacy in Early Modern the Newk77 World 7 com xii w eandboo oks wwSpain ebo free Alicia R Zuese received her Ph D from Columbia University She is Assistant Professor of Golden Age Spanish literature and culture at Southern Methodist University She has published on Cervantes s Rinconete y Cortadillo and Luis V lez de Guevara s El diablo cojuelo Currently she is completing a book manuscript on the aesthetic of baroque Spanish collections including novellas and emblems Her essay on Ana Caro is part of a project on the mentoring of women in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain Acknowledgments This volume originated with the papers presented at the conference Educating Gender Women s Literacy in Early Modern Spain and the New World held at the University of Illinois Institute for the Humanities and the Instituto Cervantes Chicago on April 2 and 3 2009 other contributors graciously submitted their essays at our invitation We are most grateful to the University of Illinois Chicago the University of Miami and the Program for Cultural Cooperation between Spain s Ministry of Culture and United States Universities for their financial support of the conference and to Dr Mary Beth Rose Director of the Institute for the Humanities University of Illinois Chicago and the staff of the Instituto Cervantes Chicago for the warm welcome extended us at these venues It is a pleasure to thank Erika Gaffney for her care in guiding us through the editorial process and the anonymous reader for the rigor and thoroughness given the manuscript that considerably improved its content We owe our greatest debt to our outstanding contributors for their willingness to share their expertise and insights on women s literacy This page has been left blank intentionally Introduction Anne J Cruz University of Miami But as I had acquired the rudiments of learning I continued to study ceaselessly divers subjects and having studied some more than others was not owing to preference but to the chance that more books on certain subjects had fallen into my hands Sor Juana In s de la Cruz La Respuesta Who can withstand mother the desire to know Lope de Vega El animal de Hungr a In the early modern period and as is still the case today reading and writing represented the means through which both men and women acquired knowledge and gained entry into a literate world Yet although men were encouraged to continue their education beyond the vernacular languages to claim the humanist legacy of the European Renaissance through learned Latin Ong 113 women were traditionally taught these activities solely for devotional and domestic purposes Because reading and writing were skills that were learned separately many women did not learn to write since reading was permitted so they could have access to devotional texts while writing was thought to encourage their immoral behavior Unlike male students whose intellectual world expanded to include the classical past women were admonished not to transgress the social and religious norms applied to them so they might not fall into such temptations as reading popular fiction or communicating needlessly through letter writing Nonetheless women s desire to learn beyond these basic measures and their struggle to obtain high levels of literacy remained a constant throughout the history of early modern Europe and the New World Indeed the English term literacy which does not have an equivalent term in Spanish and is usually translated as alfabetizaci n alphabetization comprises more than taking the first steps to decipher letters and sign one s name it presupposes the possession over time of diverse kinds of knowledge experiences and skills proffered through written sources such For early modern education in Spain see Infantes et al Moreno et al and Capit n D az Perhaps the earliest documented locus of Latin learning for women was the tenth-century Benedictine abbey Sant Pere de les Puelles Saint Peter of the Maidens in Barcelona Although the nuns left only a trace of their linguistic knowledge in the fiscal transactions they carried out in the convent it is probable that they conducted most of their readings and prayers not in their vernacular Catalan but in Latin McMillin 265 Women s Literacy in Early Modern Spain and the New World Cruz 7 com k77 boo w e oks ww ebo free as literature devotional and philosophical treatises and cultural and historical documents many of which were written in Latin It also accounts for the act of writing as a vital rhetorical and social tool as women themselves fought to become authors whether of literary religious humanist or scientific texts To be sure the abundant literary production by early modern women that has recently become available through modern editions gives ample proof of their participation in the written culture of Spain and the New World The many creative works in manuscript and print by playwrights poets novelists and nuns demonstrate that they were fully capable of applying their education to play a part in and even challenge the male-dominated hierarchies of church and state The advances in early modern women s education are not only reflected in the impressive numbers of works written by them they are also calibrated by how many women were taught to read and write whether or not they became published authors Women whose writings did not fall under any literary rubric also took part in the gendering of early modern culture Their efforts include a vast array of many different modes of writing letters memoirs treatises and autobiographies but also the copious legal religious business and household documents composed or dictated and signed by them The definition of literacy therefore draws as much from these quotidian activities as from the literary field Although the poor and working class generally lacked the means of attaining more than a basic level of literacy women from the incipient middle classes and the lower and high nobility became suitably literate to assume the domestic and business roles expected of them to take on positions of leadership in convents to participate in literary academies alongside men and to successfully achieve professional status as writers themselves Women s educational development was thus measured not solely by their social class but by the education received whether from mothers schools convents or tutors in the home Yet women s participation in the burgeoning world of the written word was often criticized by moralists an outlook reflected in numerous treatises such as Antonio de Espinosa s Reglas de bien vivir muy provechosas y aun necessarias a la rep blica christiana which states that unless your daughter is illustrious or she is made to look poorly by not knowing how to read or write do not teach her as such knowledge places lower-class and common women at great risk for they will either write to or receive letters from those whom they should not as well as open their husband s letters and wrongly learn other writings and secrets toward which the weak and curious feminine sex leans The same thoughts are echoed For the rapid growth of written correspondence in early modern Spain see Castillo G mez Si no fuere tu hija illustre o persona a quien le ser a muy feo no saber leer ni escrevir no se lo muestres porque corre gran peligro en las mugeres baxas o communes el saberlo ass para rescebir o embiar cartas a quien no deven como para abrir las de sus maridos y saber otras escripturas o secretos que no es raz n a quien se inclina la flaqueza y curiosidad mugeril cited in C tedra and Rojo 54 All translations are mine unless otherwise noted Introduction in Pedro S nchez s The qualities a man should look for in a wife Toledo 1584 He should seek a woman who cannot write nor should he reject her because she cannot read Nonetheless many girls continued to receive a good education that combined religious and moral instruction not only in Spain but across the continent and in England In her study of English aristocratic women Sharon D Michalove notes that the young girls typical education followed Juan Luis Vives s instructions for Princess Mary Tudor 1516 1558 which stressed morality as their main goal But in what kind of literature should a woman be versed someone may ask and in what reading will she immerse herself The study of wisdom which forms morals in the way of virtue the study of wisdom which teaches the best and holiest way of life I am not at all concerned with eloquence A woman has no need of that she needs rectitude and wisdom 71 By contrast the humanist education received by Sir Thomas More s daughters who learned to read Latin and Greek and were taught logic mathematics and astronomy was considered extraordinary by Erasmus who wrote to Bud in awe Titus Livius is ever in their hands Bridgett 115 The most common kind of education for young women was one that included provisioning attending to the illnesses of the household protecting the estates in the absence of father brothers and husbands and dealing with legal matters that were vital to the smooth running of estates Michalove 48 Similarly in Spain the education of poor and middle class as well as aristocratic young girls regardless of whether it took place at the private homes of women teachers called colegios de amigas or in convents was concerned in the main with preparing them to run their future households Nieves Baranda Leturio has pointed out that the educational institutions for girls founded in Toledo Salamanca Granada and Madrid among other urban centers were supervised by the church and their maintenance and growth depended on the fluctuating economics of patronage dowries and conventual interests The convent schools or colegios de doncellas imposed the same kind of daily routine on the female students as the convents did on nuns since their pedagogical purpose merged with religious instruction The hours spent daily on embroidery and other handicrafts for instance were comparable to those taken up by lessons Que busque una muger que no sepa escrevir y aun no la devria desechar porque no supiesse leer rbol de consideraci n y varia doctrina cited in C tedra and Rojo 54 Baranda L ducation lists among others the colegio de las Once Mil V rgenes in Salamanca founded in 1518 a girls school in the convent of Franciscan tertiaries in Guadalajara 1524 the colegio de las V rgenes in Zaragoza 1531 the colegio de doncellas v rgenes de Nuestra Se ora de los Remedios in Toledo 1551 the colegio de doncellas nobles de nuestra Se ora de la Asunci n in Valladolid 1589 the colegio de Nuestra Se ora de las V rgenes in Guadalajara 1591 the colegio de hu rfanas in Santiago de Compostela 1600 the colegio de la Presentaci n de Legan s in Madrid 1603 the colegio de la Inmaculada Concepci n in Granada 1607 the colegio del Corpus Christi in Murcia 1610 Women s Literacy in Early Modern Spain and the New World Cruz 7 com k77 boo w e oks ww ebo free on reading and writing These schools however still served only a small part of the population as there were towns that while supporting schools for boys had only one or two schools for girls Baranda L ducation Formal education was provided not only by convent schools and amigas but also by tutors Some young women thus were able to receive stellar educations equal to those given young men The famous Latin scholar Luisa Sigea 1522 1560 whose father a wellknown humanist and educator fled Spain along with Mar a Pacheco the leader of the failed Comunero revolt was educated by preceptors in Portugal from whom as she later wrote Philip II she gained a not at all mediocre knowledge of Latin Greek Hebrew Chaldean and Arabic Baranda Sigea 133 Sigea would continue to disprove the theory that women were incapable of humanist studies by authoring the elegiac epic Sintra and most famously the heavily annotated Ciceronian dialogue Duarum virginum colloquium de vita aulica et privata Dialogue between two maidens on courtly and private life itself reflecting women s limited choice of career between marriage or the convent George 168 The Zaragoza noblewoman Ana Francisca Abarca de Bolea 1602 1686 also the daughter of a humanist entered a Cistercian convent at age three where she professed as a nun and later became abbess Learning Latin at an early age she maintained close communication with Zaragoza intellectuals Baltasar Graci n among them and wrote poetry novels and hagiographies Campo Guiral Yet another form of learning for young girls was through their mothers some were taught directly by them in the home as was the case of Luisa de Padilla the Countess of Aranda 1590 1646 who in turn would write several treatises on the education of noble children Egido 11 Others imitated their mothers moral and spiritual qualities as in the cases of Saint Teresa of vila 1515 1582 and Luisa de Carvajal y Mendoza 1556 1614 whose mothers although they died young remained models of virtue for their daughters Cruz Feminism The most famous example of a mother educator in the early modern period was Queen Isabel of Castile 1451 1504 who made certain that her four daughters and one son received an excellent humanist education along with her courtiers sons In her important book Education and Women in the Early Modern Hispanic World Elizabeth Teresa Howe calls the queen the Spanish Zenobia underscoring Isabel s stalwart military stance where Christine de Pizan had postulated a city of ladies established on the firm foundation of strong-willed warrior queens Spain produced a flesh-and-blood example in the person of Isabel la Cat lica 31 Barbara Weissberger s outstanding study of the queen s political history Isabel Rules Constructing Queenship Wielding Power proves without a doubt that Isabel ruled equally with her husband Fernando of Aragon yet she did so without neglecting her role as mother and educator Unlike other mothers Sigea unsuccessfully offered her services as instructor to Philip s soon-to-be third wife the adolescent Isabel de Valois Baranda De investigaci n 2 Called by Plebani the female line of instruction it included sisters as teachers 33ff Introduction Isabel had at her command some of the most famous humanists in Italy such as Pietro Martire d Anghiera and Lucio Marineo Siculo to whom she entrusted the education of young male courtiers Writing about his travel to Spain to a friend Anghiera explains that By order of the queen who is a lover of the good arts I have opened an academy for the Spanish nobles just as Socrates did for the Athenians and Plato for many others And in the same letter he continues My academy has so pleased the queen herself enthroned as a living model of all kinds of virtues that she has ordered her first cousin the Duke of Guimaraes and the Duke of Villahermosa the king s nephew to visit my house often and remain all day leaving only in case of emergency In their footsteps have come all the young heirs of the leaders of the two Spains 10 The queen and her daughters were educated in what would become the traditional fashion for Spanish women aristocrats for whom according to historian Helen Nader female erudition and knowledge were the norm 11 For this purpose the queen appointed as their tutor an exceptional woman scholar Beatriz Galindo 1465 1534 known as la latina or the Latinist for her knowledge of that classical language 11 Following Isabel s pedagogical interests Galindo founded a hospital in Madrid a school for poor girls and a Hieronymite convent with funds given her by the queen Howe 47 Some studies justifiably question the extent of women s literacy at least in the medieval period Weissberger is right to query whether their exclusion from the study of Latin barred them from full participation in intellectual discourse alienating them from civic roles She states that even these educated women usually abandon ed their writing careers after marriage pointing to Galindo s later interest in the more feminine endeavor of founding convents Resisting Readers 174 75 This may have occurred more often in other European Por mandato de la Reina que es una amante de las buenas artes he abierto una academia para los nobles espa oles como S crates para los atenienses y Plat n para otros muchos Epistle 113 cited in Cro 10 Tanto ha agradado esta academia nuestra a la Reina ejemplar viviente en el trono de toda clase de virtudes que ha mandado a su primo hermano el Duque de Guimeraes y al Duque de Villahermosa sobrino del Rey que frecuenten mi casa y est n todo el d a en ella sin salir m s que cuando lo requiera un motivo urgente En pos de stos han venido todos los j venes herederos de los potentados de ambas Espa as Epistle 113 cited in Cro 11 According to Fern ndez de Oviedo although already older de edad the queen kept Galindo by her side to teach her Latin since she felt inadequate in her diplomatic dealings Among the many favors Galindo received from the queen was her brother Gaspar de Grizio s appointment as secretary to the Infante Juan 138 n271 See also Matilla Tasc n

Author Other Isbn 978 1409427131 File size 2 8 MB Year 2011 Pages 296 Language English File format PDF Category Languages Containing essays from leading and recent scholars in Peninsular and colonial studies this volume offers entirely new research on women s acquisition and practice of literacy on conventual literacy and on the cultural representations of women s literacy Together the essays reveal the surprisingly broad range of pedagogical methods and learning experiences undergone by e