When The Clouds Part The Uttaratantra And Its Meditative Tradition As A Bridge Between Sutra And Tantra

By Karl Brunnholzl

  • Genre : Philosophy
  • Publisher :
  • ISBN : 978 1559394178
  • Year : 2015
  • Language: English


W hen the C louds P art T he T sadra F oundation S eries published by Snow Lion an imprint ofSham bhala Publications Tsadra Foundation is a U S -based nonprofit organization that contributes to the ongoing development of wisdom and compassion in W estern minds by advancing the combined study and practice of Tibetan Buddhism Taking its inspiration from the nineteenth-century nonsectarian Tibetan scholar and meditation m aster Jamg n Kongtr l Lodr Tay Tsadra Foun dation is nam ed after his hermitage in eastern Tibet Tsadra Rinchen Drak The Foundation s various program areas reflect his values of excellence in both scholarship and contemplative practice and the recognition of their m utual complementarity Tsadra Foundation envisions a flourishing com m unity of W estern con templatives and scholar-practitioners who are fully trained in the traditions o f Tibetan Buddhism It is our conviction that grounded in wisdom and compassion these individuals will actively enrich the world through their openness and excellence This publication is a part of the Tsadra Foundations Translation Pro gram which aims to make authentic and authoritative texts from the Ti betan traditions available in English The Foundation is honored to present the work of its fellows and grantees individuals o f confirmed contempla tive and intellectual integrity however their views do not necessarily reflect those of the Foundation Tsadra Foundation is delighted to collaborate with Shambhala Publica tions in making these im portant texts available in the English language W h en the C louds P art The Uttaratantra and Its Meditative Tradition as a Bridge between S tra and Tantra TRANSLATED AND INTRODUCED BY Karl Brunnh lzl S n o w L io n B o sto n L ondon 2014 S no w L ion An im print of Shambhala Publications Inc Horticultural Hall 300 Massachusetts Avenue Boston Massachusetts 02115 www shambhala com 2014 by Tsadra Foundation All rights reserved No part of this book m ayb e reproduced in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying recording or by any inform ation storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher 987654321 First Edition Printed in the United States of America This edition is printed on acid-free paper that meets the American National Standards Institute Z 3 9 4 8 Standard W Shambhala makes every effort to print on recycled paper For more information please visit www shambhala com Distributed in the United States by Penguin Random House LLC and in Canada by Random House of Canada Ltd Designed by Stephanie Johnston LIBRARY OF CONGRESS C A T A L O G I N G -I N -P U B L IC A T IO N DATA Ratnagotravibhaga English W hen the clouds part the U ttaratantra and its meditative tradition as a bridge between sutra and tantra translated and introduced by Karl Brunnholzl First edition pages cm The Tsadra Foundation series Includes bibliographical references and index i s b n 978-1-55939-417-8 hardback alk paper 1 Ratnagotravibhaga Criticism interpretation etc Early works to 1800 I Brunnholzl Karl translator II Title B Q3022 E 5B78 2 0 1 4 2 9 4 -3 8 5 dc23 2014002345 Contents A bbreviations Preface A cknow ledgm ents ix xi xiii T R A N SL A TO R S IN T R O D U C T IO N i T he S tra Sources o f the Tathagatagarbha T eachings 3 D ifferent W ays o f E xplaining the M ean in g o f Tathagatagarbha 33 Explanations of Tathagatagarbha in Indian Texts Tathagatagarbha as the Emptiness That Is a Nonimplicative Negation Tathagatagarbha as M inds Luminous Nature Tathagatagarbha as the Alaya-Consciousness Tathagatagarbha as a Sentient Being Tathagatagarbha as the Dharmak ya Suchness the Disposition and Nonconceptuality Tibetan Assertions on Tathagatagarbha 54 T h e H isto ry a n d T ran sm issio n o f T he Five D harm as o f M aitreya fro m In d ia to T ibet T he M ah y nottaratantra Ratnagotravibhaga an d the Ratnagotravibh gavy khy Texts and Authorships The M eanings of the Titles Ratnagotravibhaga and Mah y nottaratantras stra 55 37 63 63 64 65 81 93 93 93 T he Uttaratantra a n d Its R elationship w ith Yog c ra 103 T he M editative T ra d itio n o f th e Uttaratantra an d S hentong The Two Approaches of Explaining the Uttaratantra The Shentong Lineages and the Meditative Tradition of the Uttaratantra in the Jonang Kagy and Nyingma Schools 123 123 131 vi m 7 co book77 www e Indian Forerunners of Shentong Early Tibetan Shentongpas Contents and Their Connection to the Uttaratantra T he Uttaratantra an d M a h m u d r S tra M ah mudr Tantra M ah m udr and Essence M ah m udr The S tra Sources of M ah m udr Maitrlpa s M ah m udr of Mental N onengagem ent Connections between Maitrlpa s M ah m udr and the Uttaratantra Other Indian N ontantric Treatises on M ah m udr G am popas M ah m udr and the Uttaratantra The Third Karmapa Rangjung Dorje The Eighth Karmapa Miky Dorje Tagpo Dashi Namgyal Padma Karpo The Eighth Situpa Ch kyi Jungn O ther Kagy Masters on M ah m udr and the Uttaratantra Go Lots was Unique M ah m udr Interpretation of the Uttaratantra The Geden Kagy Tradition of M ah m udr O verview o f the In d ian an d T ibetan Texts Presented in This B ook The Uttaratantra and Ratnagotravibh gavy khy The Indian Texts on the Uttaratantra The Tibetan Commentaries Instruction Manuals 140 151 151 165 167 177 184 190 202 206 212 214 216 227 243 278 283 283 288 301 314 T R A N SL A T IO N S 329 Ratnagotravibh ga M ah y nottaratantras stra A n Analysis o f the Jewel Disposition A Treatise on the Ultimate C on tinu u m o f the M ah y na Chapter 1 The Three Jewels and the Tath gata Heart Chapter 2 Awakening Chapter 3 The Buddha Qualities Chapter 4 Buddha Activity Chapter 5 The Benefit 331 337 415 429 437 455 Contents 7 com booonk77 w e ww Pith Instructions on The Treatise the Ultimate C on tin u u m o f the M a h a y a n a by Sajjana vn 461 A C om m entary on the M e a n in g o f the Words o f the U ttaratantra 473 A C om m entary on The Treatise on the Ultimate C on tin u um o f the M ahayana The H eart o f the L u m in o u s Sun by D ashi O ser 695 Instructions on The Ultimate C ontinuum o f the M a h a y a n a b y M o n lam T sultrim 777 The Repository o f W isdom by M o n lam Tsultrim 789 The H eart o f the M a tter o f L um in o sity by M onlam Tsultrim 797 Pith Instructions on the W isdom at the P oint o f Passing when about to Die by M o n lam T sultrim 801 The Lam p That Excellently Elucidates the System o f the Proponents o f S h en to n g M a d h y a m a k a by the Eighth K arm apa 803 G uiding Instructions on the View o f Great Shentong M a d h y a m a k a Light Rays o f the Stainless Vajra M oon by Jam gon K ongtrul 831 A p pen d ix 1 Selected In d ian an d T ibetan C om m en ts on Uttaratantra 1 27-28 855 A p pen d ix 2 Selected In d ian an d Tibetan C o m m en ts on Uttaratantra 1 154-55 901 A p p en d ix 3 In d ia n a n d T ib etan C om m en ts on A bh isam ayalam kara V 21 943 A p p en d ix 4 T he E m ptiness E ndow ed w ith All Suprem e Aspects 953 A p pendix 5 T he G eneral E xplanation o f Tathagatagarbha in Yeshe D orjes C o m m e n ta ry o n the Uttaratantra 963 Appendix 6 The Presentation o f the Purpose of Teaching Tathagatagarbha in Yeshe D orjes C om m entary on the Uttaratantra 969 A ppendix 7 C o m p ariso n o f the First Six Topics o f the F o u rth an d Fifth Vajra Points in the Uttaratantra w ith the Same Six Topics in the M ahayanasutralam kara a n d the M ahayanasam graha 979 A ppendix 8 A Letter fr o m Stainless E xpanse a nd Awareness a Casual S u m m a ry o f the U ttaratantra 983 v iii Contents N otes E n g lish -S an sk rit-T ib etan G lossary T ib e ta n -S a n sk rit-E n g lish G lossary Selected Bibliography In dex 985 1227 1231 1235 1259 Abbreviations BA Go Lotsawas The Blue Annals Gos lo tsa ba gzhon nu dpal 1996 c Chinese version of the UttaratantralRGVV CM W A Commentary on the Meaning o f the Words o f the Uttaratantra anonymous D Derge Tibetan Tripitaka GC Go Lotsawa s com m entary on the Uttaratantra Gos lo tsa ba gzhon nu dpal 2003b GISM Jamgon K ongtruls Guiding Instructions on the View o f Great Shentong M adhyam aka Kong sprul bio gros m tha yas 2008 HLS Dashi O sers com m entary on the Uttaratantra Bkra shis od zer 2006 HML The Heart o f the M atter o f Luminosity Skyo ston smon lam tshul khrim s 2007f IM Instructions on the Mahayanottaratantra Skyo ston sm on lam tshul khrim s 2007a J Johnston s Sanskrit edition of Ratnagotravibh g vyakhya JAOS Journal o f the American Oriental Society JIABS Journal o f the International Association o f Buddhist Studies JIBS Journal o f Indian and Buddhist Studies Indogaku Bukkydgakku Kenkyu JIP Journal o f Indian Philosophy JKC Jamgon K ongtruls com m entary on the Uttaratantra Kong sprul bio gros mtha yas 2005b x m k77That7 co www e Karmapa Miky boo Dorjes Lamp Excellently Elucidates Abbreviations Lam p the System o f the Proponents of Shentong M adhyam aka Mi bskyod rd o rje 1990 LTWA Library of Tibetan W orks and Archives MA Sanskrit m anuscript A of Ratnagotravibh gavy khy MB Sanskrit m anuscript B of Ratnagotravibh gavy khy P Peking Tibetan Tripitaka Tokyo-Kyoto Suzuki Research Foundation 1956 PIW Pith Instructions on the Wisdom at the Point o f Passing when about to Die Skyo ston sm on lam tshul khrim s 2007b RGW Ratnagotravibh gavy khy R G W D Ratnagotravibh gavy khy Derge Tengyur R G W P Ratnagotravibh gavy khy Peking Tengyur RW The Repository o f Wisdom Skyo ston smon lam tshul khrims 2007c RYC Rinchen Yeshe s com m entary on the Uttaratantra Rin chen ye shes 2 0 1 0 SM Sajjanas Mah y nottaratantras stropadesa Taish Taish Shinsh Daiz ky The Chinese Buddhist Canon edited by J Takakusu and K W atanabe Tokyo Taish Shinsh Daiz ky Kanko kai 1970 TBRC Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center www tbrc org TOK Jamg n Kongtrul Lodro Tay s Treasury o f Knowledge Kong sprul bio gros m tha yas 1982 U t D Uttaratantra Derge Tengyur U t P Uttaratantra Peking Tengyur VT Vai ro can araksi ta s M ah y notta ra ta n tra tippan W ZKS Wiener Zeitschrift f r die Kunde S dasiens YDC Yesh Dorjes com m entary on the Uttaratantra Ye shes rdo rje 2 0 1 0 Preface One m ay well w onder why there needs to be another book about buddha nature and the Uttaratantra The reasons for this volume are to present hitherto untranslated materials on this text mainly its Indian com m entar ies and early Tibetan materials on it and to shed new light on what is called the meditative tradition of the Maitreya texts as well as the Uttaratantras connections with M ah m udr and Shentong 1 Though there are a n um ber of translations of the verses of the Ut taratantra the only two pioneering English renderings of its com m entary Ratnagotravibh gavy khy RGVV by Obermiller from the Tibetan and Takasaki from the Sanskrit and Chinese are quite outdated at this point This volume contains a new translation of both the Uttaratantra and R G W from the Sanskrit and Tibetan which is further inform ed by Vairocanaraksitas eleventh twelfth century brief com m entary unavailable at the time o f the earlier translations The book also contains translations of Sajjanas eleventh century Mah y nottaratantropadesa a versified syn opsis o f the Uttaratantra and two never-translated Tibetan commentaries one by a student o f M arpa D opa Chokyi W angchug 2 1042-1136 and the other by D m o Dashi Oser 3 late fifteenth to sixteenth century a student of the Seventh Karmapa and principal teacher of the Eighth The form er com m entary CMW is one of the earliest Tibetan commentaries on both the Uttaratantra and R G W The latter com m entary incorporates the to p ical outline of the Uttaratantra by the Third Karmapa In addition this volume includes translations o f several short texts that are based on the Ut taratantra and R G W m ost of them of a contemplative nature six works by the Kadampa m aster Kyot n M nlam Ts ltrim 4 1219-1299 The Lam p That Excellently Elucidates the System o f the Proponents o f Shentong M adhyamaka by the Eighth Karmapa Miky Dorje 5 1507-1554 and Guiding Instructions on the View o f Great Shentong Madhyamaka by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodr Tay 6 1813-1899 These texts as well as excerpts from others provide ample scriptural support for the meditative approach to the Ut taratantra versus the exegetical or study approach and also establish the XI 7 com ways in which ww the textw e is usedboo in the k77 context of M ah m udr instructions x ii Preface and the Shentong view The introduction provides a survey of the main s tra sources of the tath gatagarbha teachings and the great variety of explanations of the m eaning of tath gatagarbha in India and Tibet It also investigates the his tory and transmission of the five works of Maitreya from India to Tibet as well as the relationships between the Uttaratantra and Yog c ra Shentong and M ah mudr Several appendices contain com ments by different Indian and Tibetan authors on the crucial verses 1 27-28 and 1 154-55 of the Ut taratantra as well as Abhisamay lamk ra V 21 which is virtually identical with Uttaratantra 1 154 explanations of the key term the emptiness en dowed with all supreme aspects and some additional com ments on the meaning and purpose of teaching tath gatagarbha Given this wealth of materials it is hard to believe that the original scope o f this book was actually very m odest simply translating the Uttaratantra RGVV and Dashi Oser s com mentary with only a very short introduction However in the course of this work the discovery of CM W 7 and the texts by M nlam Ts ltrim triggered by BAs m entioning one of them 8 as well as closer looks at the above-m entioned texts by Sajjana the Eighth Karmapa and Jamgon Kongtrul led to a fascinating journey This journey included looking at the different ways in which the Maitreya texts and the Uttaratan tra in particular were transm itted and interpreted in India and Tibet how the Uttaratantra came to be related with M ah m udr in both the Kagyii and Kadampa traditions how the Shentong view in these traditions versus the one of D lpopa is very compatible with M ah m udr and how the Ut taratantra is used as the basis of contemplative M ah mudr -style manuals In particular for m any years I was always intrigued when I heard or saw the meditative tradition of the Maitreya texts being m entioned but it seemed that not m uch inform ation about its contents let alone possible scriptural sources was available Now this situation has definitely changed through the study research and translation of the above works and other materials The rich findings on m y journey through the worlds of tath ga tagarbha Yog c ra Shentong and M ah m udr are presented here and it is m y hope that the reader will enjoy the m any scenic outlooks on the way externally as well as internally as m uch as I did An asterisk preceding a Sanskrit term or phrase indicates the most probable Sanskrit that corresponds to a Tibetan term or phrase when the original Sanskrit is unavailable or unattested Superscripted circles that precede follow or enclose a Sanskrit term or phrase indicate that this term or phrase is part of a longer compound Acknowledgments My deep gratitude and respect go to Khenchen Tsiiltrim Gyamtso Rinpoche for all his profound and detailed teachings on the Uttaratantra and several of its com mentaries over three decades as well as for being such a living example of buddha nature free from adventitious stains I am also very thankful to all the Indian Tibetan Bhutanese Chinese Japanese A m eri can English French German Danish Dutch Polish and Russian scholars too m any to nam e here who have worked on the Uttaratantra and related materials before me Their efforts have supported me greatly in present ing several parts of this book As always I am particularly appreciative of and thankful for the generous support by the Tsadra Foundation which has changed my life in a profound way and has made the translations and research in this and other volumes possible Big thanks also go to Michael W akoff for his skilled and meticulous editing I am also grateful to Steph anie Johnston for preparing the layout as well as kindly listening to the ramblings about m y latest discoveries on the journey of putting together this book If there is anything in this volume that sounds good makes sense and serves as an antidote to ignorance confusion and suffering may it be rel ished as originating from realized masters and scholars truly vast in learn ing Everything else including all mistakes can safely be said to be mine It is m y hope that this w ork may be a contributing cause for the buddha heart of His Holiness the seventeenth Gyalwang Karmapa Ogyen Trinley Dorje swiftly em bracing all sentient beings in whatever ways suitable May it in particular be of assistance in transplanting and sustaining both the scholarly and meditative traditions of the Karma Kagyii lineage in the English-speaking world as these were initiated and fostered by all the Karmapas and their followers as a means to enable suffering beings to penetrate the thick clouds o f their adventitious obscurations and soar freely through the sky of m in d s vast and lum inous expanse XIII T r a n s l a t o r s I n t r o d u c t i o n The S tra Sources of the Tathagatagarbha Teachings Possibly the first appearance of the term tathagatagarbha though not in the sense in which it is used in the tathagatagarbha sutras has been traced to the M ahasam ghika Ekottarikagama the Chinese recension of the A h guttara Nikdya If someone devotes himself to the Ekottarikagama Then he has the tathagatagarbha Even if his body cannot exhaust defilements in this life In his next life he will attain supreme wisdom 9 The term is also used once in the Gandavyuhasutra which is dated prior to the Tathagatagarbhasutra as an epithet of Sudhana w ithout further expla nation 10 Furtherm ore the Prajhapdramitasutra in One H undred Fifty Lines Adhyardhasatikdprajhaparamitasutra contains the sentence all sentient beings possess the tathagata heart because their entire being is that o f the great bodhisattva Sam antabhadra 11 The earliest m ahayana sutras that are based on and discuss the notion of tathagatagarbha as the buddha potential that is innate in all sentient beings began to appear in written form in the late second and early third century 12 To m y knowledge there is no Indian text that provides a list of tathagatagarbha sutras but the Uttaratantra and RGVV spell out their sutra sources as follows The Uttaratantra 1 2 declares that its primary source is the Dharanisvararajasutra which is said to contain all seven vajra points R G W adds the following sutras as alternative individual scriptural sources for these vajra points the Sthiradhyasayaparivartasutra vajra points 1 to 3 the Anunatvapurnatvanirdesaparivarta vajra points 4 and 6 the Snmaladevisutra vajra point 5 and the Tathagatagunajhandcintyavisayavataranirdesasutra vajra p oint 7 In addition Uttaratantra 111 27 refers to the Ratnadarikasutra as the source o f the sixty-four buddha qualities R G W also m entions the Tathagatagarbhasutra as the basis for teaching 3 m k777 co w eandboo ww the dharmakaya suchness the disposition in detail which refers to 4 Translators Introduction Uttaratantra 1 143-52 m atching the dharm akaya and so on with the nine examples in that sutra Though the Sarvabuddhavisayavatarajndndlokalamkarasutra is not explicitly m entioned in the Uttaratantra it is clearly the source of the nine examples for enlightened activity used in the Uttaratantra In addition R G W quotes this sutra several times Further im portant quotes in R G W related to the notion of tathagatagarbha are from the Buddhavatamsakasutra the example of the universe being painted on a huge canvas and then being inserted into a m inute par ticle which illustrates tathagata wisdom pervading the m ind streams of all sentient beings as well as the Gaganaganjapariprcchdsutra and the Sagaramatipariprcchasutra both about lum inous m ind and its adventitious stains A famous passage from the Culasunnatasutta 13 is silently incorpo rated in RGVVs comments on Uttaratantra 1 154-55 R G W also refers to the passage those with great desire have the nature of absolutely not attaining parinirvana which is found in several sutras among them the Mahaparinirvanasutra 14 It is obvious that the Uttaratantra s nine examples for the tathagata heart being obscured by adventitious stains come from the Tathagatagarbhasutra b u t neither the Uttaratantra n or R G W explicitly acknowledge this Like wise the Uttaratantras example of the painters who draw a kings portrait 1 88-92 which illustrates the emptiness endowed with all suprem e as pects is unacknowledged as stem m ing from the Ratnacudapariprcchasutra Later probably beginning with Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen 15 1292-1361 Tibetan authors began to use the term s utathagatagarbha sutras 16 and sutras of definitive meaning and compiled lists of those types of sutras D olpopas ten tathagatagarbha sutras consist of the following 1 Tathagatagarbhasutra 2 Avikalpapravesadharam 3 Srimaladevisutra 4 Mahabherisutra 5 Ahgulimaliyasutra 6 Sunyatdnamamahasutra17 7 Tathagatamahakarundnirdesasutra aka DharanJsvarardjasutra 8 Tathagatagunajnanacintyavisayavatdranirdesasutra 9 Mahameghasutra 10 Parinirvanasutra and Mahaparinirvanasutra these two are counted as one 18

Author Karl Brunnholzl Isbn 978 1559394178 File size 42 8 MB Year 2015 Pages 1152 Language English File format PDF Category Philosophy KARL BRUNNH LZL was trained as a physician and presently works as a Tibetan translator and Buddhist teacher He studied Tibetology Buddhology and Sanskrit at Hamburg University and Tibetan language and Buddhist philosophy and practice at the Marpa Institute for Translators in Kathmandu Currently he works as a translator and interpreter for the Tsadra Foundat